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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lennart
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Bryngelsson, Ing Liss
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft Lindesberg 2005/20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den allmänna befolkningens exponering för bensen, butadien, formaldehyd,

    kvävedioxid samt partiklar PM 2,5 i Lindesberg har studerats från oktober 2005

    till och med januari 2006. Totalt ingick 40 personer och 60 personburna mätningar

    (exponeringsmätningar) av olika cancerframkallande ämnen genomfördes i

    sjudygnsperioder. Ökat intresse för de partikulära luftföroreningarnas betydelse

    vid bland annat hjärt-kärlsjuklighet innebar att mätningar av partiklar PM 2,5

    genomfördes stationärt i hemmen under 2 dygn. Parallellt med exponeringsmätningarna

    genomfördes även bakgrundsmätningar av samtliga ämnen vid

    byggnaden där Bergslagens Miljö- och Byggförvaltning är inhysta (Kungsgatan)

    och vid trafikerad gata på Räddningstjänstens tak (Kristinavägen) av samtliga

    ämnen med mätperiod totalt uppgående till fem veckor. Liknande studier i större

    tätorter har tidigare genomförts i Göteborg, Umeå, Stockholm och Malmö.

    Resultaten från undersökningarna i Lindesberg kan sammanfattas i följande tabell:

    Lufthalter för olika ämnen i Lindesbergs kommun hösten 2005

    Ämne Personburna mätningar Bakgrundsmätningar

    μg/m³

    Kristinavägen

    μg/m³

    Kungsgatan

    μg/m³

    Bensen

    1,6 0,4 0,4

    Butadien

    0,5 0,04 0,05

    Formaldehyd

    27 3 2

    Kvävedioxid

    6 10 7

    Partiklar PM 2,5

    9,3 9 9,7

    Vi har inte kunnat konstatera någon säkerställd påverkan på lufthalter av enskilda

    miljöfaktorer eller levnadsmönster. För enskilda individer sågs god korrelation

    mellan lufthalter vid olika mätomgångar. Skillnader i exponering kunde inte

    konstateras då rökvanor eller boendeform jämfördes, för pendlare sågs dock

    skillnader i bensen-, butadien- och kvävedioxidexponering.

    Korrelationen mellan exponeringsmätningar och bakgrundsmätningar var låg för

    samtliga ämnen utom för bensen, motsvarande samvariation mellan olika ämnen i

    enskilt prov erhölls endast för bensen och butadien.

    De uppmätta lufthalterna av olika ämnen i Lindesbergs kommun är väl i nivå med

    de olika nationella och internationella rikt- och gränsvärden som finns antagna.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lennart
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Husby, Bente
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Arvidsson, Helena
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft Lindesberg 2010/20112010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Naturvårdsverkets programområde

    Hälsorelaterad miljöövervakning

    (HÄMI), delprogram

    Luftförorening – exponeringsstudier ingår personburen

    mätning av vissa cancerframkallande och luftvägsirriterande ämnen i tätortsluft.

    De övriga orter som ingår i projektet är Göteborg, Umeå, Stockholm och Malmö.

    Lindesberg får här representera en

    mindre inlands kommun.

    Mätningarna genomförs för att försöka skatta allmänbefolkningens exponering för

    hälsoskadliga ämnen och samtliga orter har nu genomfört två mätomgångar från

    starten år 2000. De ämnen som ska mätas är bensen, butadien, formaldehyd,

    kvävedioxid, pratiklar PM 2,5 och benso(a)pyren.

    Lindesberg genomför inga egna mätningar av bakgrundshalter och vi har därför

    även vid denna mätomgång valt ut samma två platser som vid föregående mätning.

    Räddningstjänstens tak (Kristinavägen) som representerar en trafikerad central

    gata och Bergslagens Miljö- och Byggförvaltning (Kungsgatan). De uppmätta

    lufthalterna är på samma låga nivåer som vid mätningen år 2005.

    Bakgrundhalterna i Lindesberg är i jämförelse med övriga orter lägre, vilket känns

    troligt då det rör sig om en mindre tätort.

    För de personburna mätningarna är nivåerna lika med eller i vissa fall något högre

    jämfört med de övriga orterna. Det uppmättes några höga bensen- och

    butadienhalter med det beror på en yrkesmässig exponering.

  • 3.
    Angelstam, Per
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg. Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Analys av skogarna i Dalarnas och Gävleborgs län: Prioriteringsstöd inför områdesskydd2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skogspolitiken innebär att biologiska mångfald ska bevaras, både i from av hållbara produktiva ekosystem och bevarande av livskraftiga populationer av alla förekommande arter. Givet en lång historia av intensivt nyttjande av skogarna för produktion av virke, och en konkurrens mellan arealer för produktion och naturvård, så är det angeläget att utveckla kostnadseffektiva och verksamma tekniker för strategisk och taktisk planering.

    Detta gäller såväl skydd av natur, men även skogsskötsel och återskapande av funktionella ekosystem.

    Som en praktisk tillämpning av utvecklingsarbetet inom forskningsprogrammet ” Fjärranalys för miljö” genomfördes under 2002 en regional bristanalys presenteras sedan en rumslig analys av var trakter av speciellt intresse för bevarande av av olika skogstyper ligger, i vilken grad är de skyddade och om de utgör fungerade nätverk av livsmiljöer för olika artar.

     Inledningsvis presenteras en metodik för regional bristanalys.

    I det andra avsnittet presenterar vi ett angreppssätt för att utvärdera funktionen av de arealer som det enligt den regionala bristanalysen är brist på. Detta baseras på kvalitativa och kvantitativa kunskaper om arter med olika landskapsekologiska krav som är specialiserade på olika skogstyper, och en kartering av olika skogstyper.

  • 4.
    Ericson, Ingrid;,
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Screening av humanvävnad2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    To expand our monitoring focus and to make complementary additions to the POPs traditionally measured we undertook a POP screening study of human tissue representative for Swedish adults in 2007. Among the compounds assessed in this study are several classes of organohalogen contaminants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and their brominated homologues (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other bromine containing compounds, a number of organochlorine Stockholm Convention pesticides including toxaphene, and several recently identified perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). The analytical techniques used were based on various GC and HPLC massspectrometry applications after clean-up and fractionation of blood and adipose tissue samples. The profile of the PCDD/F in 2007 is considered to be unchanged since the 90’s. The shift in congener profile from BDE #47, earlier being the dominant congener in human tissues, to BDE# 153 being dominant is confirmed in this study. Levels of PCBs are lower in this study group in relation to earlier fish consumers’ levels. Six individual PFCs were detected in the blood samples analysed. PFOS was detected at the highest concentration, with a geometric mean of 16 ng/ml, followed by PFOA, 2,4 ng/ml, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA were present at similar levels. There is a need to further investigate individual exposures to PFCs and identify high exposure groups. Brominated PBDFs were found in human adipose at concentrations of 0.27-2.24 pg/g, being the first results on a larger material of the general population in Sweden. The screening of a larger sample seize of human adipose tissue revealed several unknown, bromine containing POPs. Both smaller and larger bromine containing compounds besides the known BDEs were found. Positive identification of these compounds will require authentic standards and high resolution GC/MS analysis.

  • 5.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Haglund, Peter
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, teknisk- naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, kemiska institutionen.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution from precursor compounds to the total amount of selected PFASs in water and sludge from Swedish waste water treatment plants, as a supplemental to previous studies of two persistent PFAS-classes; perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Compound classes added in this study were fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs), perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs, PFPiAs), perfluoralkane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs), and also the intermediates fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) and the stable transformation products fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs). Three waste water treatment plants were included; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Umeå. PFAS levels in sludge from 2012. 2014, and 2015, and in filtered effluent and influent water from 2015 are reported. Precursor compounds were detected in sludge and influent water from all three WWTPs. Levels of precursor compounds in sludge samples exceeded those of persistent PFASs. Increasing PFCA levels in the effluent water compared to the influent water was observed, especially for the short-chained PFCAs. Occurrence of precursor compounds in influent water and sludge indicate degradation of precursor compounds to persistent PFASs.

  • 7.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    “Screening av PBDD/F i humana matriser”2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a screening study during 2007-2008, also performed by MTM and commissioned by

    the Swedish EPA, the presence of polybrominated dibenzo-

    p furans (PBDFs) were

    detected in human adipose tissue from the Swedish population for the first time. In this

    study ten additional adipose samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-

    p

    dioxins and furans, PBDD/Fs. In all samples, 2,3,7,8-TeBDF was present in levels

    ranging from 0.23 to 0.54 pg g

    -1 lipid and pentabrominated furans were present in nine

    out of ten samples. The levels of 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, 1,2,3,7,8- and 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF were

    similar to those reported in the previous screening study [1].

    By lowering the detection limits by using larger injection volumes by employing the PTV

    injection technique, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-/1,2,3,6,7,8-HxBDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-

    HpBDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF were detected for the first time in

    human adipose tissue samples from Sweden. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD was detected in five out of

    ten samples in the range of 0.03-0.05 pg g

    -1 lipid. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD has been detected in

    samples with human origin earlier but not in samples from Sweden and levels of

    1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDF has previously been detected in human milk samples from several

    countries, including Sweden. However, the detection of 1,2,3,4,7,8-/1,2,3,6,7,8-HxBDD,

    1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF in human tissue is to our knowledge

    reported for the first time.

    To summarize, results from nineteen samples (the present and previous study)

    demonstrate the presence of brominated furans in the general Swedish population.

    Additionally, the individuals having the highest PBDD/F concentrations had also the

    highest levels of PCDD/Fs (pg TEQ g

    -1). This might support the general assumption that

    brominated and chlorinated dioxins have the same sources and exposure routes.

  • 8.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Lindell, Måns
    Executive, Vattenvårdsförbund.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Ulla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Miljögifter i blod hos högkonsumenter av Vätternfisk2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Blodprover från kvinnliga "Vätternfiskkonsumenter" har bestämts med avseende på halten av polyklorerade bifenyler (PCB), 1,1-diklor-2,2-bis(4-klordifenyl)etylen (DDE), Hexaklorben-sen (HCB), hexaklor cyklohexan (HCH), Polybromerade difenyletrar (PBDE) och kvicksilver (Hg). Gruppen bestod av 37 kvinnor som var fritidsfiskare eller fruar till fritids- eller yrkes-fiskare. Halterna jämfördes med kontroller och förutom analys av blodets halt av miljögifter kartlades också gruppens dietvanor med hjälp av en kostenkät.

    Resultaten visar att halterna av samtliga miljögifter med undantag av HCB var högre hos Vät-ternfiskkonsumenter än i kontrollgrupperna. Halten av PCB 153 (en variant av PCB) låg un-gefär i samma nivå (115-625 ng/g fett) som tidigare rapporterats hos fruar till fiskare på ost-kusten (151-463 ng/g fett) då personer i samma åldersgrupp jämförs (37-59 år). Vid jämförel-ser av medelvärden utan hänsyn till ålder, hade kvinnor som konsumerar fisk från Vättern högre halter (354 ng/g fett) än som har rapporterats i en studie av fruar till fiskare på ostkusten (160 ng/g fett). De höga halterna beror på att flertalet av deltagarna i denna studie är äldre och att blodets halt av PCB, DDE och HCB ökar med stigande ålder.

    Blodets medianhalter av den ingående varianten i flamskyddsmedel, BDE 47 var generellt låg men var något högre bland Vätternfiskkonsumenter jämfört med kontrollen (3,6 respekti-ve 2,9 ng/g fett). Fiskkonsumtion anses enligt tidigare studier vara en viktig orsak till att PBDEs som används som flamskyddsmedel samlas i kroppen.

    Medelvärdet av halten metylkvicksilver hos Vätternfiskkonsumenter var 9,4 μg/l vilket är 3-5 gånger högre än den hos kontrollgrupperna (2,6 μg/l respektive 1,6 μg/l). Förklaringen är sannolikt Vätternfiskkonsumenternas höga konsumtionen av både mager (abborre, gädda) och fet (lax, röding, öring) rovfisk under flera års tid. Samtliga Vätternfiskkonsumenter med halter över 19

    μg/l i blodet åt främst abborre och/eller lax, röding, öring 1-3 gånger vecka. Andra studier har tidigare visat att nervsystemet hos foster kan påverkas om mödrarna har kvicksil-verhalter över 10 μg/l och flera kvinnor i denna studie hade alltså halter som översteg detta värde.

    Även om halterna av främst PCB och metylkvicksilver i blodet hos Vätternfiskkonsumenter är höga är det inte motiverat att avråda äldre personer eller kvinnor som inte tänker skaffa fler barn att äta fet fisk. Tvärtom, nyttan med sådan fisk överväger. Den feta fisken innehåller Omega-3-fettsyror som minskar risken för hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Däremot indikerar fyn-den i denna undersökning att kvinnor i barnafödande ålder ej bör äta stora mängder av framför allt abborre och fet fisk från Vättern.

  • 9.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Wingren, Gun
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Berglund, Marika
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Exponering och kroppsbelastning av PCB och metaller hos befolkningen i ett historiskt kontaminerat samhälleReport (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett förorenat område i Gusum, Valdemarsviks kommun i Östergötland har en epidemiologisk fall

    ‐kontrollstudie genomförts. Omgivningsmätningar i detta område har påvisat förhöjda halter av zink (Zn), koppar (Cu), bly (Pb) och kadmium (Cd) i jord, grönsaker, rotfrukter, bär och svamp. Mätningar i lokalt fångad gädda och abborre har påvisat förhöjda halter av PCB och även kvicksilver.

    Att äta grönsaker, frukt, bär, svamp och fisk från ett förorenat samhälle skulle kunna innebära ökad exponering för miljögifter jämfört med om man inte äter sådana livsmedel. Vid långvarig hög exponering för miljögifter ökar risken för hälsoeffekter. Risken för hälsoeffekter beror på vilka miljöföroreningar man exponeras för, hur mycket man får i sig av de olika ämnena och hur känslig man är som individ.

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka om: a) rapporterad konsumtion av lokala livsmedel samvarierar med uppmätta halter av PCB, bekämpningsmedel, bly, kadmium och kvicksilver i en befolkning boende i ett förorenat område, b) befolkningen i ett förorenat område är högre exponerade än befolkningsgrupper i andra områden, c) exponeringen skiljer sig mellan kvinnor och män, och d) individer med cancerdiagnos, som tidigare identifierats via ett nationellt register, skiljer sig från kontroller med avseende på uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar.

    Individer med cancerdiagnos (n=36) och kontroller (n=59; högkonsumenter och lågkonsumenter av lokala livsmedel) som ingick i den tidigare fall

    ‐kontrollstudien tillfrågades om de ville lämna blod, urin och hår för analys av PCB, bekämpningsmedel, bly, kadmium och kvicksilver samt besvara en enkät om konsumtionsfrekvenser av livsmedel, livsstils‐ och exponeringsfaktorer.

    Faktorer som ålder, kön, rökvanor, yrke och cancerdiagnos utvärderades i relation till konsumtion av lokala livsmedel och uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar i blod, urin och hår. Samband sågs mellan kadmiumhalt i urin och att vara aktiv rökare, konsument av svamp och vegetabilier från Gusum/Ringarums församling, ålder, metallarbete, att ha bott i Gusum i 5 år eller mer och att ha fått en cancerdiagnos. Blyhalt i blod samvarierade med rapporterad konsumtion av viltkött och kvicksilver i hår samvarierade med fiskkonsumtion, både Gusumfisk och annan fisk. PCB samvarierade med ålder, konsumtion av Gusumfisk och strömming, lantbruksarbete och cancerdiagnos. Även halter av bekämpningsmedel samvarierade med lantbruksarbete.

    Generellt hade män högre halt av PCB och bekämpningsmedlen transklordan, transnonaklordan än kvinnor och cancerfallen hade högre halt av PCB och bekämpningsmedlet HCB än kontrollerna. Det förekom ingen skillnad i metallhalt mellan män och kvinnor eller mellan cancerfall och kontroller.

    Resultaten tyder på att konsumtion av svamp och vegetabilier från Gu

    Gusumområdet bidrar till exponeringen för kadmium och att konsumtion av fisk från Gusumområdet bidrar till exponering för PCB och MeHg, men att faktorer som kön, ålder, rökning och yrke spelar stor roll för de uppmätta halterna. Exponering för bekämpningsmedel och kvicksilver kunde inte kopplas till konsumtion av föda från Gusum. Istället är det användning av bekämpningsmedel samt att ha arbetat inom lantbruk som bidrar till exponeringen för bekämpningsmedel och konsumtion av fisk generellt (och inte enbart fisk från Gusum) som bidrar till kvicksilverexponeringen. Uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar i blod,

    urin och hår uppvisade stor variation mellan studiedeltagarna, men låg i nivå med vad som uppmätts hos andra grupper av befolkningen i samma åldersintervall.

    I den multivariata analysen sågs samvariation mellan cancerdiagnos och PCB i blod respektive kadmium i urin. I den här studien går det inte att uttala sig om orsaken till cancersjuklighet, dels för att provtagningen har utförts långt efter det att personer har fått sin cancerdiagnos, dels för att orsakerna till cancersjukdom oftast är många och till stor del okända. Materialet är också litet vilket

    ökar osäkerheten i analysen. Fortsatta studier av exponering och hälsorisker hos befolkning i kontaminerade områden planeras.

  • 10.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Holmström, Katrin
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Perfluoroalkylated acids and related compounds (PFAS) in the Swedish environment2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The perfluoroalkylated substances have gained increased attention among scientists and regulators during the last few years. In particular, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and similar perfluorinated alkylated acids are regarded as the most stable end products of various perfluoroalkylated substances and have been shown to be extremely stable, bioconcentrate and biomagnify and have several toxicological effects. The industrial chemistry of perfluoroalkylated substances is extremely diverse and includes almost all chemical functionalities from simple pure alkanes to complex co-polymers. Major usage of perfluoroalkylated products is related to polymeric compounds and the dominant release to the environment is from primary and secondary production plants which are lacking in the Nordic countries. The occurrence of elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkylated acids in Sweden is strongly related to urbanized areas and the most likely path into the aquatic environment is through sewage water, although atmospheric input is also possible via more volatile precursor compounds. Up to 40 times elevated concentrations were found in biota from urban areas compared to unpolluted areas. Lake Mälaren and lower parts of the river Helge å are examples of aqueous environments clearly contaminated by PFOS. One of several potential point sources in Sweden has been screened for PFOS. A firefighting training site was found to release PFOS to the local aqueous environment (wetland) where μg/l concentrations where found. Long chain (more than 8 C for sulfonates and 10 C or more for carboxylates) perfluoroalkylated acids are readily taken up by biota in aqueous environments and reach very high concentrations in predators at high trophic levels of aquatic food webs. Baltic guillemot egg showed an increasing trend in PFOS concentration from 20-30 ng/g by the end of sixties to more than 600 ng/g at present. Freshwater otter from various locations in Sweden showed concentrations similar to guillemot eggs and Baltic grey seal has extreme values up to ten times higher (21 μg/g sum of all acids 6-14 C, PFOS alone:11μg/g). Human exposure, as described by Swedish human blood levels, appears to be similar to most other countries. No extreme values were encountered which would indicate occupational exposure. An excessive consumption of freshwater fish may contribute to an increased exposure, but this could not be clearly verified. Occupational settings where exposure to precursor compounds can take place are present in Sweden and should be included in future studies. Industrial use of textile and leather impregnating formulations result in elevated concentrations of perfluorocarboylates in effluent water from sewage treatment plants. The relation between effluent and biota concentrations for an aquatic environment with this type of activity needs to be further described in particular for perfluoroalkyl carboxylates which are currently being discharged in Sweden. Exposure routes and distribution behavior are yet not completely described for many PFAS, in particular their precursors. Environmental levels, human levels and human exposure data are lacking for a wide variety of PFAS discussed in this report

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Therese
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Sven Lovén centrum för marina vetenskaper.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Rotander, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Sven Lovén centrum för marina vetenskaper.
    Provtagningsmetoder för mikroplast >300 μm i ytvatten: En jämförelsestudie mellan pump och trål2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling and analyzing microplastics (MPs) comes with a unique set of challenges and currently a wide variety of methods are developed and applied. In order to facilitate future environmental monitoring we compared two methods that are often used for sampling MPs >300 μm; a manta trawl and a filtering pump. Six replicates per method were taken during calm weather conditions in the same location on the same day. The volume per replicate was 20 m3 for the pump and approximately 60 m3 for the trawl. Following analysis was done with visual sorting in a stereo microscope. The same person analyzed all samples and the anthropogenic particles were divided into eleven classification categories.

    In the pump samples zero to eight MPs were found per sample, rendering an arithmetic mean of 0.17 MPs/m3. In the trawl samples the numbers varied between 9 and 33 MPs, which corresponded to a significantly higher concentration per volume than the pump with an arithmetic mean of 0.32 MPs/m3. The results also indicated that in order to reach a statistical power of 60%, ten pump replicates would be needed to measure a difference between the examined area and an uncontaminated area. For the trawl a corresponding number of two replicates would be required. Alternatively a higher sample volume can be applied, which would render a higher certainty as the distribution data would approach a Gaussian distribution. A higher sampling volume would also lower the measurement uncertainty as it would decrease fluctuations in the counting statistics. Variations in measurement uncertainty between the methods was hypothesized to be primarily related to the differences in sample volume and could also be compensated through increasing the volume sampled, which would be somewhat faster than increasing the amount of replicates.

    The composition of MPs in the study varied between the replicates but mainly consisted of expanded cellular plastics, films, filaments and fragments. Each pump sample had on average 1.3 films and 0.33 expanded cellular plastics whereas each trawl sample had on average 2.5 films and 9.2 expanded cellular plastics. Per unit of volume the majority of the particles in the pump samples (40%) consisted of films, whereas the particles in the trawl predominantly consisted of expanded cellular plastics (46%). Expanded cellular plastics therefore seem to be sampled more efficiently by trawls, which could be because they float on top of the surface, the pump samples a bit lower in the surface water and the results in this study show that the sample compositions were more comparable for particles with more neutral buoyancy. Not enough particles were however obtained to allow for a more in-depth analysis of the compositional differences.

    The probability of false null-values increase with a lower true value of numbers of particles per sample and this starts to have a significantly negative effect below five particles per sample. Regardless of which method that is used it is therefore crucial to sample a sufficient number of particles (volume times concentration) suitable for comparing spatial, temporal or compositional differences.

    Background and purpose of the report

    Even if methods for sampling, extraction and identification of microplastics have developed rapidly during recent years several challenges remain. One of the challenges that remain is how to sample a group of contaminants that is as heterogeneous, both concerning shape and distribution, as microplastics. Additionally it is important to know to what extent results from different types of sampling devices can be compared. Here we compare two methods that are often used to sample microplastics above 300 μm in surface waters; a manta trawl and a pump. During one day (10th of October 2017) six replicates per sampling method was taken in the same spot in Gullmarsfjorden outside Lysekil. Through counting microplastics and other types of microlitter in the samples the aim was to compare differences between replicates and methods.

    This study was commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, as a step in the work to develop monitoring of microlitter.

  • 12.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Davies, Jenna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Aune, Marie
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    PFAAs in matched milk and serum from primipara women2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to assess the association between serum and milk levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans. Individual milk and serum samples from fifty (50) primipara women in Uppsala, Sweden, were collected in 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2011. PFAAs were analysed in milk and serum using in-house validated methods and quality control protocols. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were detected in 98-100% of the milk and serum samples in the concentration order PFOS>PFHxS>PFOA. PFBuS, PFHpA, and PFDA were detected in 12-64% of the milk and serum samples. PFNA and PFUnDA were detected at high frequency but low levels in serum and were consequently less frequently detected in milk. PFOS and PFHxS showed a stronger correlation between serum and milk levels compared to PFOA. The regression slope with 95% confidence interval was calculated to assess the association between serum and milk levels. The level of PFOS in milk is 1.4 ± 0.25% of the corresponding maternal serum level. For PFHxS the interval is 1.4 ± 0.33% and for PFOA 2.6 ± 1.1%. The temporal trends (2004-2011) observed are similar in serum and milk.

  • 13.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Analysis and Occurrence of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Breast Milk and Serum from Swedish Women, 1996-20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk samples and blood serum collected from primipara women in Sweden during the period 1996 to 2004 were analyzed with the aim to study levels of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and the concentration ratio between milk and blood. A total of five perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were detected in breast milk, of which perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were found most frequently. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected. The highest mean concentration in individual milk samples was obtained for PFOS (0.172 ng/mL) followed by PFHxS (0.068 ng/mL) and PFOSA (0.012 ng/mL). The quantification of PFOA was hampered in most of the samples due to a high procedural blank contamination. A total of eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples. Breast milk levels in this study were on average 113 times lower compared to serum levels for PFOS, 57 times lower for PFHxS and 23 times lower for PFOSA. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS and PFHxS. During the period 1996-2004, the levels in pooled breast milk samples were relatively constant with a slightly decreasing trend for the pools collected in years 2003-2004. Analysis of breast milk, consecutive sampled over a period of several days, did not indicate a decrease in levels with progression of lactation.

  • 14.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    “Mätningar av PFOS i bröstmjölk och blod”2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk samples and blood serum collected from primipara women in Sweden during the

    period 1996 to 2004 were analyzed with the aim to study levels of perfluorinated chemicals

    (PFCs) and the concentration ratio between milk and blood.

    A total of five perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were detected in breast milk, of which

    perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were found most

    frequently. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorononanoic acid

    (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected. The highest mean concentration in

    individual milk samples was obtained for PFOS (0.172 ng/mL) followed by PFHxS (0.068

    ng/mL) and PFOSA (0.012 ng/mL). The quantification of PFOA was hampered in most of the

    samples due to a high procedural blank contamination. A total of eight PFCs were detected in

    the serum samples.

    Breast milk levels in this study were on average 113 times lower compared to serum levels for

    PFOS, 57 times lower for PFHxS and 23 times lower for PFOSA. There was a strong

    association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for

    PFOS and PFHxS.

    During the period 1996-2004, the levels in pooled breast milk samples were relatively

    constant with a slightly decreasing trend for the pools collected in years 2003-2004.

    Analysis of breast milk, consecutive sampled over a period of several days, did not indicate a

    decrease in levels with progression of lactation.

  • 15.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood andplasma from the Swedish population2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of five perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFOSA and

    PFNA were determined in whole blood and plasma from 47 males and 36 females

    representing the Swedish population. The analytical method developed and used includes

    solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray masspectrometry. PFOS was

    the PFA found at the highest concentration in whole blood (18.2 pg/ul) followed by PFOSA

    (4.1 pg/μl), PFOA (2.7 pg/μl), PFHxS (2.3 pg/μl) and PFNA (0.3 pg/μl). Besides the five

    compounds determined, we were able to detect PFHxA, PFDA, PFDS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA

    and PFTDA in some of the samples/at low concentrations, the only compound included in this

    study that we did not detect was PFBuS. This shows that the Swedish population are exposed

    for a large number of PFAs. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA correspond to those

    found in USA. The correlation between PFOS and the other compounds was studied in order

    to find out if there is a common source of exposure. Only a very week correlation between

    PFOS and PFOA could be seen.

  • 16.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hardell, Karin
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in relation to high fish consumption, part 3: 2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual levels of 33 PCBs (#28, #52, #47/48, #74, #66, #101, #99/113, #110, #118,

    #114/122, #105, #153, #138, #128/167, #156, #157, # 178, #182/187, #183, #174, #177,

    #172/192, #180/193, #170/190, #189, #202, # 194, #199, #196/203, #195, # 208, #207,

    #206), HCB, oxychlordane,

    p,p’-DDE and PBDE #47 were determined in 141 plasma

    samples (0.5-3 ml) from Swedish females with documented high consumption of fish.

    The analytical method used includes solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high resolution

    mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS EI SIM).

    Concentrations reported are given in pg/ml plasma and in ng/g plasma lipid (ppb). Lipid

    contents were determined enzymatically. For the sum of the 33 PCBs the average level,

    on lipid basis, was 340 ppb (range 1979-61 ppb), for PCB 153 the average was 81 ppb

    (range 460-13 ppb), HCB 41 ppb (range 143-12 ppb), oxychlordane 2.3 ppb (range 27-

    0.06), p,p-DDE 131 ppb (range 1114-7.3 ppb) and PBDE #47 had an average level of 2.5

    ppb (range 25-0.4 ppb). A reference sample confirms the method performance to have a

    SD of 13% for the total PCB.

  • 17.
    Malmgren, Jan
    et al.
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Örebro län.
    Gustafson, Daniel
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Journath Pettersson, Cecilia
    Rygne, Helena
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Örebro län.
    Grandin, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Undersökningstyp: Inventering och övervakning av större vattensalamander (Triturus cristatus)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den större vattensalamandern, Triturus cristatus, förekommer i Sverige i hela Göta- och Svealand utom på Gotland, samt sparsamt längs Norrlands kustland. Man finner arten främst i öppna kulturpräglade landskap men även i rena skogslandskap. Landhabitaten ska helst vara mogna skogsbestånd med lång kontinuitet och ha en komplex markstruktur som ger god tillgång till gömslen och platser för födosök. Tidigt på våren lämnar djuren sin övervintrings-plats på land för att söka sig till sin lekdamm. Under lekperioden är arten främst knuten till fiskfria, väl solexponerade småvatten med riklig vegetation. I skogslandskapet kan man dock finna arten i ganska sura och nästan helt vegetationslösa skogstjärnar och myrgölar. Vatten med alltför låga pH-värden tycks generellt undvikas. Då artens larver har en lång utvecklings-period bör vattensamlingen även vara permanent eller åtminstone hålla vatten under perioden mars-april till oktober-november. Kännedomen om artens förekomst och utbredning är fortfarande dålig i stora delar av landet, men man kan anta att den minskar i antal. Hoten mot större vattensalamander är främst landskapsförändringar av olika slag som påverkar dess land- och vattenhabitat. För långsiktigt livskraftiga populationer krävs dessutom att det finns fler populationer inom ett begränsat område med gynnsamma spridningsvägar emellan, s.k. metapopulationer. Detta är något som blivit sällsynt i många av våra landskap då det småskaliga mosaiklandskapet har fått ge vika för storskaligt jord- och skogsbruk. Dessutom är skogar med lång kontinuitet sällsynta och granplantering samt igenväxning på tidigare åker-, ängs- och betesmark har haft en skuggande och ibland försurande effekt på många småvatten. Utdikning, dränering och inplantering av fisk där fisk tidigare saknats är andra faktorer som bidragit till att småvatten lämpliga för större vattensalamander har isolerats eller förstörts. Större vattensalamander är rödlistad (klass NT/Missgynnad) i Sverige, EU och IUCN samt fridlyst i Sverige. Eftersom arten är upptagen i EU:s habitatdirektiv (92/43/EEG) och Bernkonventionens appendix II är alla länder inom EU förbundna att bevara inte bara arten, utan också dess habitat. I Sverige regleras artens skydd av Artskyddsförordningen (SFS 1998:179). För mer information om den större vattensalamanderns biologi och status, se Malmgren (2002) och Gustafson & Malmgren (2002).

  • 18.
    Persson, Josefin
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Wang, Thanh
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    A survey of organic flame retardants and plasticizers in building materials on the Swedish market and their occurrence in indoor environments2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Man-made and industrial organic chemicals are ubiquitous in the indoor environments due to their frequent usage in building materials, interior decorations and consumer products. These chemicals are classified as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) depending on their physical characteristics such as boiling points and vapor pressures. The VOCs are mostly released to the indoor environment via volatilization processes, whereas the emission mechanisms of SVOCs is a more complex mix of volatilization, abrasion and/or direct transfer to other contact materials or skin. Exposure to certain SVOCs has been linked to adverse human health effects such as allergies, chronic asthma, endocrine disruption and neurodevelopmental issues. The aim of this report was to investigate two groups of SVOCs that are frequently used as additives in building materials; organic flame retardants (FRs) and plasticizers. A literature search was performed in order to identify currently used FRs and plasticizers as well as some new alternatives, which totaled to almost 300 compounds. These were further investigated for their presence in building materials available on the Swedish market with the help of two building material assessment databases SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen. In all, around 2 500 building materials in the two databases were identified to contain the listed FRs and plasticizers. Plasticizers were frequently used in adhesives, jointing mastics, paints and indoor flooring while FRs were frequently used in different lighting articles, fireproof paints and jointing mastics. Interestingly, more than half of the FRs and plasticizers in our list were not registered in the material databases. This could be owing to the absence or low usage of these compounds in building materials in Sweden.

    There is currently still a lack of knowledge on the chemical content in building materials and their emission characteristics to the indoor environment and the potential exposure risks to occupants. Future work such as combining field emission tests of building materials with indoor air and dust sampling in the same room is recommended to fill some of the knowledge gaps. Another strategy is to conduct suspect screening chemical analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry on representative indoor matrices such as dust, and link detected compounds to specific chemical additives found in different building products. The database which was established within this survey could then be useful for this purpose.

  • 19.
    Yeung, Leo
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

  • 20.
    Yeung, Leo
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

    Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

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