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  • 51.
    Ejhed, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lind, Ewa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nguyen, Minh
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållén, Joakim
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hellgren, Stefan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Belastning och påverkan från dagvatten: Källor till föroreningar i dagvatten, potentiell effekt, och jämförelser med belastning från andra källor2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMED performed this project on pollution and load from stormwater on commission by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Stormwater is rain water, melting water and surface water runoff generated in urban areas and on national roads. The purpose of this project was to compile the load of pollutants in stormwater to water recipients. Primary sources, potential toxic and endocrine disrupter effects and load on the aquatic environment have been compiled and calculated from a selection of priority substances, comprising a total of 22 nutrients, metals and organic pollutants. These substances were selected because they are known substances in stormwater and priority substances of the Water Authorities and substances for which it was possible to calculate the load. These 22 substances have such adverse effects in the aquatic environment that the load of all of these substances should be limited or completely prevented. The toxicity of stormwater has been compiled based on available literature. However, the studies are few and of varying content, which makes it difficult to draw any general conclusions regarding the effects of stormwater.

    The number of pollutants in stormwater may however be much larger. Measured concentrations in stormwater collected from the Swedish EPAs Screening Database show that of totally 300 substances 74 are detected in all samples of stormwater in which they have been analyzed and another 117 substances are present in some of the stormwater samples. Substances than often occurred in stormwater include metals, some dioxins and furans, alkylphenols, antioxidants, pesticides, hydrocarbons, LAS (Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) and flame retardants.

    The results of the load calculations show that stormwater is a significant pathway to the recipients of certain substances, even though the urban area is less than 1% of Sweden's total area. For cadmium, zinc, lead and copper, the contribution from stormwater has been estimated to be between 15% and 17% of the total load in Sweden and can be regarded as significant load. In between 451 and 1090 individual water bodies, the load from stormwater is the dominant source pathway (> 50% of total load) to the different metals. Stormwater accounts for 100% of the load in 17 water bodies for copper, zinc and lead, in 12 water bodies for cadmium and nickel and in 3 water bodies for mercury. For the organic substances, the data on emissions are very uncertain or lacking entirely for many sources in Sweden, e.g the leachate from different soil types, agricultural land and forests, but the available data and calculations indicate that stormwater is an important pathway for PAH16, DEHP, nonylphenol, HCH, TBT, PBDE, PFOS and PCB7 to water recipients.

    Very significant contributions (> 25%) to the load in stormwater within urban areas come from land used for industry, trading site, gravel and sandpit, port and landfill activities for all metals, nonylphenol (58%), PFOS (54% ), PAH16 (40%), HCH (23%), PCB7 (23%), PBDE (22%) and octylphenol (18%). Industry and trading site is the largest area within the land use class and should be prioritized in the ongoing work. Industry and trading sites have high type concentrations and high runoff coefficients that cause the high load. The load in the stormwater of the phthalate DEHP, however, comes from areas of "single house, very green area" (35%), "residential area, less green area" (29%) and "urban green area, sports facility, airfield grass" (25%). The land use class "single house, very green area" constitutes the largest area in total in urban areas in Sweden (35% of the area), which means that the surface contributes with a general load.

    There are major uncertainties in the results, due to the lack of monitoring of substances in stormwater. The calculations in this report are based on land use compiled by SMED to HELCOM Pollution Load Compilation (PLC7) reporting, type concentration and runoff coefficients in urban areas from the Stormtac database as well as reported emissions in environmental reports from sewage treatment plants and industries in the Swedish Environmental Reporting Portal. Especially for organic substances, data is lacking, making these estimates more uncertain. Development of the environmental monitoring of metals and organic substances is needed in order to follow trends and to prioritize among measures at the upstream source and through water treatment.

    Despite the uncertainties, the large number of substances that have been detected in stormwater and the estimated significant contributions from stormwater to the total load, indicates that the environmental problems with stormwater can be extensive.

  • 52.
    Ek, Mats
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junestedt, Christian
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kock, Elisabet
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ljunggren-Söderman, Maria
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Szudy, Mikael
    SCB.
    Utvecklingsprojekt för byggavfall: Hur ska avfallsstatistik från byggsektorn tas fram på bästa sätt?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to find a well defined and not too laborious method to collect statis-tics for waste from the building trade in Sweden. The statistics will be used as a base for report-ing to the EU Waste Statistics Regulation, but perhaps mainly to give actors in Sweden better possibilities to evaluate their environmental targets. The methods of other European countries have been studied, and different operators within construction waste have been interviewed. Discussions with a panel of experts in the start and end of the project have also been important. Other countries have used questionnaires, waste factors and different types of administrative systems or combinations of these for their reporting to the EU. Unfortunately there is a lack of information about the uncertainty of data with the different methods. The different operators that have been contacted are building companies and waste transporta-tion and waste treatment companies. None of these groups have well implemented systems for waste statistics today. Some companies within the different trades have good control, but far from all. Different coding systems are also used by different operators to describe the waste. There is thus no really natural way today to collect waste statistics from the building trade. A natural way should be to ask the builders themselves, where the waste originates. However, as long as there is no legal demand for them to create systems for this, it is not of high priority. Another problem is that there are more than 70 000 registered companies in Sweden, and that the very dominating (less than 10 companies) have another mix of projects than most of the smaller companies. It is mainly demolition, with its high waste generation, that is predominantly done by smaller companies. The waste treatment companies are fewer, but if their statistics is used there is a risk that a lot of construction material and already sorted material for reuse are missed. This can be transported directly to other building areas or to specialized recovery enterprises. However, the waste treat-ment companies should have the best possibilities to give data on further treatment of the waste. For 2008 years reporting SMED used a thorough survey of a restricted geographic region, and based on the answers data on a national level was estimated. The drawbacks are that the method is very dependent on the person doing the survey, and that different parts of the country proba-bly have quite different mixes of building projects. To decrease the uncertainty several regions would have to be studied. Since many European countries use waste factors this method has also been evaluated. With good statistics of construction, renovation and demolition available it would be easy to use the factors for calculation. However, most factors are relatively uncertain, especially these for reno-vation and demolition. It is also difficult to get both factors and constructed amounts when it comes to roads, bridges and tunnels.

    Pure questionnaires with a standardized form are not considered to be suitable for this trade with the great amount of very big and very small operators. The percentage of answers has been very low in earlier investigations. The final decision has been to study a number of waste transportation companies of three differ-ent size classes in detail, and to survey their transports from building companies. This will then be transformed to the whole trade by means of these companies share of the total trade. An important reason for the choice is that this is when the waste is transported for the first time, and it should be possible to avoid counting masses twice or completely missing them. There are a few very big companies with good possibilities to give their figures, and a number of smaller ones with less gathered statistics. The drawback of the method is that it might be difficult to choose representative companies among the smaller ones, and to make the extrapolation from these.

  • 53.
    Ek, Mats
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junestedt, Christian
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Larsson, Cajsa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ericsson, Marianne
    SCB.
    Teknikenkät - enskilda avlopp 20092011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har givit SMED i uppdrag att genomföra en undersökning för att uppdatera uppgifter om enskilda avlopp som ett led i planering och uppföljning av åtgärder för att nå uppsatta miljömål.

    En enkät med förtryckta centrala registeruppgifter från fastighetstaxering och mantalsskrivning skickades ut till Sveriges samtliga kommuner. I enkäten efterfrågades vilken typ av avloppstekniklösning som är knuten till fastigheterna samt vilka av dessa som endast har avloppslösning för BDT-vatten. Den samlade informationen om den här typen av uppgifter är så gammal (ca 10 år) och ofullständig att det är angeläget att förnya den.

    Efter två påminnelser och utsträckt svarstid samt telefonintervjuer med utvalda kommuner, baserat på antal enskilda avlopp enligt SCB, inkom totalt 142 svar. De representerade totalt 148 kommuner, då några blanketter innehöll sammanlagda data från fler kommuner. Tyvärr innehöll många bara konstaterandet att man inte hade möjlighet att besvara enkäten. De absolut vanligaste skälen var tids- och resursbrist och att man inte hade data i en lämplig form för att ta ut de önskade uppgifterna. Det var antagligen också skälen till att vi inte fick något svar alls från 140 kommuner.

    Från totalt 102 kommuner kom svar som bedöms som mer tillförlitliga än de uppgifter som redan fanns i SMEDs register. Av dem är det dock bara 42 som har kunnat skilja på fastigheter med permanentboende och sådana för fritidsboende. I de flesta fallen var den uppdelningen inte heller fullständig, utan mer en uppskattning. En majoritet av kommunerna hade också problem att redovisa fastigheter med enbart BDT-avlopp.

    I projektet har även det mycket viktiga arbetet med att uppdatera schablonvärden för belastning och avskiljning av organiskt material (BOD och COD, i framtiden antagligen TOC), totalkväve (N-tot) och totalfosfor (P-tot) i enskilda avlopp av olika typer genomförts.

    Schablonerna ska användas för att uppskatta belastningen från enskilda avlopp i större avrinningsområden. De ska inte användas vid val av metod för rening i enskilda fall. Schablonerna har tagits fram i samråd med en grupp ledande aktörer inom området i Sverige.

    Belastningsberäkningar genomförda i projektet med användande av de nya schablonerna visar på stora skillnader jämfört med tidigare beräkningar. Med samma statistik som användes i PLC5 leder de nya schablonerna till att belastningen ökar med 21% för fosfor och 120% för kväve, vilket visar hur avgörande schablonerna är för beräkningsresultatet. Med de nya schablonerna blir den totala belastningen från enskilda avlopp i Sverige 287 ton P och 2 900 ton N jämfört med 237 ton P och 1 317 ton N enligt PLC5. Visserligen omfattar de nya beräkningarna även gemensamhetsanläggningar mellan 25-200 pe, vilka tidigare inte ingått i beräkningarna men dessa anläggningar som servar knappt 8 000 fastigheter står endast för 1,3 ton P och 45 ton kväve. Beräkningarna visar också att belastningen av fosfor har minska något pga förbättrad rening och reducerad BDT-belastning, pga fosfatfria tvättoch diskmedel. Denna förbättring ”försvinner” dock i den ökade belastning de förändrade schablonerna leder till.

  • 54.
    Elander, Maria
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Dunsö, Olof
    SCB.
    Stare, Malin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allerup, Jonas
    SCB.
    Konsumtion och återanvändning av textilier2014Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gode, Jenny
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Axelsson, Ulrik
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vägledning och metodval vid beräkning av påverkan från förändrad energianvändning på de svenska miljömålen: Framtagen med stöd av miljömålsrådet Energimyndigheten och Naturvårdsverket2009Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Eriksson, Marianne
    et al.
    SCB.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utsläpp av fosfor från enskilda avlopp: Slutrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Skatteverkets fastighetstaxeringsregister finns det i Sverige 744 863 fastigheter med enskilt wc-avlopp. En stor del av dessa, 294 197, har egentliga Östersjön som slutlig mottagare för sina föroreningar. För de flesta föroreningar utgör inte enskilda avlopp en stor källa men för fosfor, som har stor betydelse för Östersjöns ekologiska status, visar beräkningar (Brandt, M., Ejhed, H., 2002) att enskilda avlopp står för en betydande del av belastningen.

    Detta projekt visar att genom att ta bort fosfater ur tvätt- och rengöringsmedel skulle utgående belastning av fosfor från de enskilda wc-avloppen minska med ca 20%, vilket motsvarar ca 20 ton per år för egentliga Östersjöns avrinningsområde och 50 ton per år totalt för hela Sverige.

  • 57.
    Fejes, Jonas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindgren, Charlotte
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tvätt av oljeskadade fåglar2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Oljeutsläpp i vattenmiljöer kan drabba sjöfåglar hårt. Oljan kommer vanligtvis ut i vattnetgenom olyckor på land eller till sjöss, eller genom slarv och okunnighet från verksamheter somhanterar olja och oljeliknande kemikalier. Bl a har Kustbevakningen registrerat mellan 200-500oljeutsläpp/år i den svenska zonen i Östersjön under de senaste åren. Exakt hur många fåglarsom oljeskadats och dött på grund av dessa oljeutsläpp i Östersjön är omöjligt att uppskattamen det rör sig troligen om 10 000-tals, kanske mer än 100 000 individer årligen.De arter som drabbats värst av oljeutsläppen är havslevande fåglar såsom alfåglar, sillgrisslor,tordmular och lommar, men även andra arter utsätts emellanåt för olja beroende på var ochnär oljeutsläppet sker.Den största mängden sjöfåglar i Östersjön förekommer längs Gotlands sydostkust medrelativt kort avstånd till farled och Hoburgs bank. Vid Hoburgs bank uppehåller sig varjevinter omkring en miljon alfåglar. Sedan 1996 har antalet oljeskadade fåglar på Gotlandinventerats varje vinter, främst alfåglar. Inventeringen går ut på att se om situationen föralfåglar har förbättrats eller försämrats med åren. Inventeringarna har i regel påvisat cirka 20000 skadade alfåglar varje vinter. Antalet observerade oljeskadade fåglar har dock ökat desenaste åren ( 27 000 fåglar vintern 00-01 och 36 800 vintern 01-02). Inventeringen visar intepå någon reducering av antalet drabbade alfåglar trots att antalet observerade oljeutsläpp harminskat (även i farleden utanför Gotland) (Kustbevakningen, 2003).När alfåglar blir oljeskadade flyger de in till land, där de dör p.g.a. förgiftning, köld eller svält.Fåglar som är helt nedsmetade tar sig dock aldrig till land utan dör till havs.Idag avlivar länsjägmästare eller jaktvårdsföreningar huvuddelen av funna oljeskadade fåglar.Detta sker helt enligt svensk jaktlag. Allmänheten uppfattar ibland detta som oetiskt och tvättav oljeskadade fåglar framhålls då som ett ”mjukare” alternativ.Det finns idag ett antal internationella och nationella organisationer som har erfarenhet av atttvätta oljeskadade fåglar. Dokumentationen av erfarenheterna är dock mycket begränsade.

  • 58.
    Ferm, Martin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EMEP Intensive Measurement Periods 2008/09 at Råö2009Report (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Ferm, Martin
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Persson, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peterson, Kjell
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utredning angående havssaltsandelen av PM10 på bakgrundsstationen Råö2007Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Fång, Johan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2014: Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study was performed on selected pharmaceuticals and hormones. A total of 103 pharmaceuticals were analysed in 25 samples from a national program and 41 samples from a regional program. In addition, three hormones were analysed in 25 samples. The sampling programs were focused on samples from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving waters. Biota samples (perch) were also included in the study.

    45 pharmaceuticals were detected in the effluent of at least one WWTP, in levels that ranged from low ng/L up to 8.8 μg/L, with a median concentration of 52 ng/L. Caffeine was detected in highest concentrations followed by the beta-blocker metoprolol (1.8 μg/l). In WWTP sludge, 31 substances were detected. The antibiotic ciprofloxacine often dominated and was found in all sludge samples in the range 800-1800 μg/Kg dw. 44 pharmaceuticals were detected in surface water samples in the range from low ng/L up to 480 ng/L. Measured surface water concentrations were compared to critical environmental concentrations, i.e. the water concentration that is expected to cause a pharmacological effect in fish. This evaluation showed that eight pharmaceuticals in these samples may cause a pharmacological response in fish exposed to these waters. In biota (perch muscle) 17 substances were detected in concentrations up to 150 μg/Kg.

    Concentrations of hormones in WWTP effluents were <0.12 -0.76 ng/L for β-estradiol, <0.23–25 ng/L for estrone and <0.38–23 ng/L for ethinyl estradiol. Hormone measurements in perch bile suggested increased concentrations due to influence from WWTP emissions. Concentrations of hormones in three WWTP sludge’s were 2–7 ng/g dw for β-estradiol, 2–36 ng/g dw for estrone and 46–62 ng/g dw for ethinyl estradiol.

  • 61.
    Flodström, Eje
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjödin, Åke
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Uppdatering av utsläpp till luft från arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap för Sveriges internationella rapportering2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges rapportering av utsläpp till luft till Klimatkonventionen (UNFCCC) samt till Konventionen om gränsöverskridande luftföroreningar (CLRTAP) har under de ca fem senaste åren i fallet arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap till stora delar vilat på en genomgripande "bottom-up" inventering utförd av IVL under 1999 avseende 1997 års utsläpp. Till viss del är därmed svenska officiella utsläppsdata för denna sektor föråldrade. Föreliggande projekts syfte har varit att, med utgångspunkt från den förra inventeringen från 1999, göra en uppdatering av de nationella utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap, där hänsyn tas till bl a:

    • förändringar i bestånd och andra aktivitetsrelaterade data (t ex driftstider) sedan den förra inventeringen, reella sådana eller genom att ny kunskap på området tagits fram

    • införandet av avgaskrav inom EU på dieselmotorer i arbetsfordon stegvis från 1999

    • ny kunskap om emissionsfaktorer för arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap

    Baserat på den förra inventeringen från 1999 har inom föreliggande projekt nya "bottom-up"-beräkningar av de nationella utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsmaskiner utförts för åren 1998 och 2002. Utifrån dessa har sedan de årsvisa utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsmaskiner för hela perioden 1990-2002 räknats om för samtliga de ämnen som idag redovisas avseende utsläpp relaterade till diesel- och bensinanvändning inom den mobila sektorn i Sveriges internationella rapportering (CO2 inkl bränsleförbrukning CH4, N2O, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, NH3,samt partiklarform av TSP, PM10och PM2.5). För de nya "bottom up"-beräkningarna har för aktuella uppgifter på bestånd av arbetsfordon uppdelade på näringsgren i hög grad utnyttjats statistik tillgänglig via trafikregistret kombinerat med företagsregistret. För uppgifter om fordonsbestånd och aktivitetsdata avseende arbetsredskap (gräsklippare och trimmers) har för första gången utnyttjats SCB's OMNIBUS-undersökning - som riktas mot svenska hushåll - med gott resultat.

    Jämfört med inventeringen från 1999 har i den nya inventeringen utsläppen av CO2 minskat marginellt (ca 3%), utsläppen av NOx, CH4 och N2O minskat i betydande omfattning, främst till följd av ändrad (förbättrad) beräkningsmetodik, medan utsläppen av NMVOC och partiklar ökat till följd av nya emissionsfaktorer.

    Kunskapen om - såväl som modeller och verktyg för beräkningar av - utsläppen från arbetsmaskiner och arbetsredskap är jämförelsevis fortfarande begränsad, och osäkerheterna i de beräknade utsläppen får bedömas som relativt stora. Det föreligger ett stort behov av förbättrad statistik avseende bestånd och aktivitetsdata, men också ett forskningsbehov, för att kunna uppnå bättre precision i nationella utsläppsberäkningar. Oaktat detta ger rapporten förslag på hur man utan större insatser kan uppdatera de framtida utsläppsberäkningarna avsedda för Sveriges internationella rapportering, så att de speglar framtida förändringar i såväl bestånd som i emissionsprestanda.

  • 62.
    Flodström, Eje
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjödin, Åke
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Uppdatering av utsläpp till luft frånarbetsfordon och arbetsredskap för Sveriges internationella rapportering2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last five years, Sweden's reporting of national air emissions to the UNFCCC and CLRTAP for "Off-Road Vehicles and Working Machinery" (emissions within CRF/NFR-codes 1A2f, 1A3e, 1A4b and 1A4c) has relied on a detailed bottom-up inventory conducted in 1999 regarding emissions for the year 1997. To a certain extent Swedish official emission data therefore now are out of date as regards this particular sector. The aim of the present work has been to make an update of the Swedish national air emissions from off-road vehicles and working machinery, considering among other things:

    • changes in the fleet and other activity data (e.g. operation times) since the previous bottom-up inventory, real changes or those brought forward by new or imrpvoed knowledge in the field

    • the introduction of emission regulation within the European Union for diesel engines in off-road vehicles stepwise since 1999

    • new or improved knowledge on emission factors for off-road vehicles and working machinery

    Based on the previous bottom-up inventory for year 1997, within the present work renewed bottom-up inventories of emissions to air from off-road vehicles and working machinery have been compiled for the years 1998 and 2002. Based on these new data yearly emissions from off-road vehicles and working machinery have been recalculated for the whole period 1990-2002 for all pollutants that are presently included for diesel and gasoline combustion from mobile sources in Swedens international reporting, i.e. CO2 including fuel consumption, CH4, N2O, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, NH3, and particulate matter in the form of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. For the new bottom-up inventories up-to-date information on the fleet stock divided by branch of business has been derived from available statistics from the Swedish national vehicle register combined with the national business register. For information on fleet stock and activity data for working machinery (lawn-movers and trimmers) for the first time the so called OMNIBUS-survey to Swedish households conducted by Statistics Sweden has been utilised with encouraging results. Compared with the previous bottom-up inventory for 1997, the updated inventories yielded marginally lower emissions of CO2 (about 3%), whereas the emissions of NOx, CH4 and N2O decreased substantially mainly due to changes (improvements) in calculation methodology, and emissions of NMVOC and particulate matter increased due to new emission factors.

    The national emission data for off-road vehicles and working machinery are considered to be associated with fairly large uncertainties, and there is a need for further improvements in the underlying data particularly on the activity side by improved statistics as well as by further research and investigations.

  • 63.
    Fredricsson, Malin
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Helena
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nerentorp, Michelle
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nanos, Therese
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Areskoug, Hans
    ACES.
    Kreici, Radovan
    ACES.
    Alpfjord Wylde, Helene
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Carlund, Thomas
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Josefsson, Weine
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Leung, Wing
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Nationell luftövervakning – Sakrapport med data från övervakning inom Programområde Luft t.o.m. 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket, Luftenheten, ansvarar för den nationella luftövervakningen i bakgrundsmiljö i Sverige. I rapporten redovisas resultat från verksamheten inom Programområde Luft avseende mätningar (genomförda av IVL, SU, SLU och SMHI) till och med 2017 och regionala modellberäkningar (utförda av SMHI) till och med 2016.

    För flertalet av de luftföroreningskomponenter som övervakas inom den nationella miljöövervakningen har det, sedan mätningarna startade för mellan 15 och 35 år sedan, generellt sett skett en avsevärd förbättring avseende såväl halter i luft som deposition i bakgrundsmiljö. Utvecklingen har dock varierat i något olika utsträckning beroende på komponenter och lokalisering i landet. Föroreningsbelastningen är oftast lägre ju längre norrut i landet man kommer.

    För de flesta ämnen som det finns miljökvalitetsnormer (MKN) respektive miljömål för ligger halterna i regional bakgrund avsevärt lägre än angivna gräns- och målvärden. Halterna av ozon överskrider dock i dagsläget MKN för hälsa.

  • 64.
    Fridell, Erik
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Arbetsmaskiner: Uppdatering av metod för emissionsberäkningar2010Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Carlsson, Annica
    SCB.
    Jensen, Carl
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kartläggning av plastavfallsströmmar i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics are found everywhere, in applications such as food packaging materials to components manufactured for the car industry. The variation and complexity of plastics is reflected in the waste streams of the material. Due to the wide use of plastics, plastic materials also end up in numerous different waste streams for which the conditions for waste treatment methods focusing on recycling varies.

    This study is to be considered as a pre-study with the overall objective of generat-ing an overview of the waste streams of plastics. The aim of the study is to identify and quantify the waste streams of plastics in Sweden. This both in terms of quan-tity expressed in tonnes, but also regarding the distribution among different sorts of plastics and the expected treatment.

    For mapping the flows of plastics data has been compiled from various databases (such as the official waste statistics produced by SMED, the so-called Avfall Webb (loosely translated "waste web") and foreign trade statistics), data from literature and contacts taken with the industry. Table S1 summarizes the results from the study with respect to the identified plastic waste streams in Sweden and how the waste streams are treated. The waste streams for which it is unclear whether the treatment takes place outside Sweden are marked with a question mark.

  • 66.
    Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Carlsson, Annica
    SCB.
    Jensen, Carl
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kartläggning av plastavfallsströmmar i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics are found everywhere, in applications such as food packaging materials to components manufactured for the car industry. The variation and complexity of plastics is reflected in the waste streams of the material. Due to the wide use of plastics, plastic materials also end up in numerous different waste streams for which the conditions for waste treatment methods focusing on recycling varies.

    This study is to be considered as a pre-study with the overall objective of generat-ing an overview of the waste streams of plastics. The aim of the study is to identify and quantify the waste streams of plastics in Sweden. This both in terms of quan-tity expressed in tonnes, but also regarding the distribution among different sorts of plastics and the expected treatment.

    For mapping the flows of plastics data has been compiled from various databases (such as the official waste statistics produced by SMED, the so-called Avfall Webb (loosely translated "waste web") and foreign trade statistics), data from literature and contacts taken with the industry. Table S1 summarizes the results from the study with respect to the identified plastic waste streams in Sweden and how the waste streams are treated. The waste streams for which it is unclear whether the treatment takes place outside Sweden are marked with a question mark.

  • 67.
    Gerner, Annika
    et al.
    SCB.
    Andersson, Markus
    SCB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Differences between Eurostat and CRF data in Swedish reporting: A comparative study of data on fuel consumption in 2005-2011 reported by Sweden to Eurostat and UNFCCC2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU ESD review regarding submission 2012 revealed differences between data on fuel consumption reported from Sweden to Eurostat and UNFCCC respectively. In this study, annual energy statistics reported to Eurostat (Eurostat data) and the Swedish greenhouse gas inventory reported to UNFCCC and EU, submission 2013 (UNFCCC data) have been compared and analysed. The study covered the reference years 2005-2011. Numerous differences were found, but no obvious errors in UNFCCC data were revealed.

    Generally, the major causes of differences are:

     Different allocation principles due to different purposes and guidelines.

     Different data sources

     Different calorific values

    In the sectoral approach, the largest differences were found for solid fuels in the iron and steel industry, gas/diesel oil for road transports and in the other sectors, liquid fuels in the chemical industry and black liquor in the industrial sector, which is reported as process emissions in UNFCCC data.

    No errors were found in UNFCCC data, but the allocation of black liquor will be reviewed during 2013, if this issue is discussed during the In Country Review . A suspected double counting of diesel in 2011 was found in Eurostat data, which caused a very large difference for road transport that year. The large difference for liquid fuels in 1A2c is explained by the fact that combustion of process by-products are not reported to Eurostat because the raw materials used are reported as non-energy use.

    In the reference approach, differences are generally caused by differences in calorific values. For coking coal, the calorific value in the UNFCCC reference approach is considered to be too low and should be adjusted before submission 2014. For liquid fuels, there are often significant differences in stock change data which causes differences in apparent consumption. For biomass, apparent consumption is systematically higher in Eurostat data. This is only partly explained by the fact that non-renewable waste was coded as biomass in the EU ESD mapping. The calculations for biomass in the UNFCCC reference approach will be reviewed in future submissions.

  • 68.
    Gerner, Annika
    et al.
    SCB.
    Andersson, Markus
    SCB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Differences between Eurostat and CRF data in Swedish reporting: A comparative study of data on fuel consumption in 2005-2011 reported by Sweden to Eurostat and UNFCCC2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU ESD review regarding submission 2012 revealed differences between data on fuel consumption reported from Sweden to Eurostat and UNFCCC respectively. In this study, annual energy statistics reported to Eurostat (Eurostat data) and the Swedish greenhouse gas inventory reported to UNFCCC and EU, submission 2013 (UNFCCC data) have been compared and analysed. The study covered the reference years 2005-2011. Numerous differences were found, but no obvious errors in UNFCCC data were revealed.

    Generally, the major causes of differences are:

     Different allocation principles due to different purposes and guidelines.

     Different data sources

     Different calorific values

    In the sectoral approach, the largest differences were found for solid fuels in the iron and steel industry, gas/diesel oil for road transports and in the other sectors, liquid fuels in the chemical industry and black liquor in the industrial sector, which is reported as process emissions in UNFCCC data.

    No errors were found in UNFCCC data, but the allocation of black liquor will be reviewed during 2013, if this issue is discussed during the In Country Review . A suspected double counting of diesel in 2011 was found in Eurostat data, which caused a very large difference for road transport that year. The large difference for liquid fuels in 1A2c is explained by the fact that combustion of process by-products are not reported to Eurostat because the raw materials used are reported as non-energy use.

    In the reference approach, differences are generally caused by differences in calorific values. For coking coal, the calorific value in the UNFCCC reference approach is considered to be too low and should be adjusted before submission 2014. For liquid fuels, there are often significant differences in stock change data which causes differences in apparent consumption. For biomass, apparent consumption is systematically higher in Eurostat data. This is only partly explained by the fact that non-renewable waste was coded as biomass in the EU ESD mapping. The calculations for biomass in the UNFCCC reference approach will be reviewed in future submissions.

  • 69.
    Gerner, Annika
    et al.
    SCB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bergström, Jonas
    SCB.
    Kvalitetskontroll av emissionsfaktorer för stationär förbränning: Memorandum2012Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Orru, Hans
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Åström, Stefan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haben, Tekie
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and estimated health impacts in Sweden 20102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the countries in Europe which experiences the lowest concentrations of air pollutants in urban areas. Despite this, health impacts of exposure to ambient air pollution is still an important issue in the country and the concentration levels, especially of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles (PM10 and PM2.5), exceed the air quality standards at street level in many urban areas.

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine at Umeå University have, on behalf of the Swedish EPA, performed a health impact assessment (HIA) for the year 2010. The population exposure to annual mean concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air has been quantified and the health and associated economic consequences have been calculated based on these results.

    Environmental standards as well as environmental objectives are to be met everywhere, also at the most exposed kerb sides. However, for exposure calculations it is more relevant to used urban background data, on which also most available exposure-response functions are based. The results show that in 2010 most of the country had rather low NO2 urban background concentrations in comparison to the environmental quality standard for the annual mean (40 μg/m3) and the population weighted average exposure to NO2 was 6.2 μg/m3. Likewise the PM10 urban background concentrations, compared to the environmental quality standard for the annual mean (40 μg/m3), were also low in most parts of the country. However, in some parts, mainly in southern Sweden the concentration levels were of the same magnitude as the environmental objective (20 μg/m3 as an annual mean) for the year 2010. The majority of people, 90%, were exposed to annual mean concentrations of PM10 less than 20 μg/m3. Less than 5% of the Swedish inhabitants experienced exposure levels of PM10 above 25 μg/m3.

    The modelling results for PM2.5 show that the urban background concentration levels in 2010 were of the same order of magnitude as the environmental objective (12 μg/m3 as an annual mean for the year 2010) in a quite large part of the country. About 70% of the population was exposed to PM2.5 annual mean concentrations lower than 10 μg/m3, while less than 15% experienced levels above 12 μg/m3.

    There is currently within the research community a focus on the different types of particles and more and more indications that their impact on health and mortality differ. Yet a common view is still that current knowledge does not allow precise quantification of the health effects of PM emissions from different sources. However, when the impact on mortality from PM10 is predicted, exposure-response functions obtained using PM2.5 are usually reduced using the PM2.5/PM10 concentration ratio.

    Assessment of health impacts of particle pollution is thus difficult. Even if WHO in HRAPIE and others assessments still choose to recommend the same relative risk per particle mass concentration regardless of source and composition, we find this a too conservative approach. Therefore we applied different exposure-response functions for primary combustion generated particles (from motor vehicles and residential wood burning), for road dust and for other particles (the regional background of mainly secondary particles).

    For primary combustion particles we have in this study applied the exposure-response coefficient 17 % per 10 μg/m3 for mortality. For other PM2.5 sources and for PM2.5 totally, we applied the 6.2 % per 10 μg/m3 as was recently recommended by WHO. For road dust we here assumed only a "short-term" effect on mortality as has been done for PM10 in general.

    We estimated approximately 3 500 preterm deaths per year from PM2.5 without any division between sources and using the exposure-response coefficient 6.2 % per 10 μg/m3. Assuming a division between sources we estimated that non-local sources caused just over 3 000 preterm deaths per year (exposure-response coefficient 6.2 % per 10 μg/m3), and residential wood burning caused just over 1 000 preterm deaths per year (exposure-response coefficient 17 % per 10 μg/m3). In addition, we estimated approximately 1 300 preterm deaths per year from locally generated vehicle exhaust using NO2 as an indicator (exposure-response coefficient 17 % per 10 μg/m3 and a 5 μg/m3 cut-off). Preterm mortality related to short-term exposure to road dust PM, estimated to over 200 deaths per year (exposure-response coefficient 17 % per 10 μg/m3), should probably be added to the impact of local traffic in Sweden. In summary, the total number of preterm deaths can be estimated to approximately 5 500 per year when taking into account differences in exposure-response for different PM sources. Note that the ground-level ozone has not been taken into account in this study, but can still cause premature deaths and other health issues.

    For morbidity we have in this study included only some of the potentially available health endpoints to be selected. Only a few important and commonly used endpoints were included to allow comparisons with other health impact assessments and health cost studies.

    The estimated respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions due to the short-term effects of air pollution may seem to be low in comparison with the estimated number of deaths, new chronic bronchitis cases and restricted activity days. However, for hospital admissions we can only estimate the short-term effect (acute effect) on admissions, not the whole effect on hospital admissions following morbidity induced by the air pollution exposure.

    The socio-economic costs (welfare losses) related to population exposure to air pollutants as indicated by NO2 were calculated both with and without a threshold of 5 μg/m3. The results suggest that the health effects related to annual mean levels of NO2 can be valued to between 7 and 25 billion Swedish crowns (SEK2010) during 2010 depending on if a threshold of above 5 μg/m3 is included or not.

    Moreover, welfare losses resulting from exposure to PM pollutants from road dust, domestic heating and other sources can be valued to annual socio-economic costs of about 35 billion SEK 2010 during 2010. Approximately 6.5 of these 35 billion SEK2010 are from productivity losses in society. Furthermore, the amount of working and studying days lost constitutes about 0.3% of the total amount of working and studying days in Sweden during 2010. Using the division between PM sources and NO2 (with a 5 μg/m3 cut-off) as an indicator of traffic combustion the total socio-economic cost would be approximately 42 billion SEK2010.

    In a counterfactual analysis, impacts of a hypothetical large scale introduction of electric passenger vehicles in the Stockholm, Göteborg, and Malmö regions were studied. The results from this analysis indicated that the health benefits from introducing ~10% electric vehicles in these regions would motivate 13 – 18% of the investment.

  • 71.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lindén, Jenny
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Tang, Lin
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Orru, Hans
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and estimated health impacts2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study population exposure to annual mean concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air has been quantified, and the health and associated economic consequences have been calculated based on these results. To allow application of known exposure-response functions for assessment of health effects this study exclusively focus on regional and urban background concentrations. Nearly the entire Swedish population was exposed to concentrations below the environmental standards, and 97 %, 78 % and 77 % was exposed to concentrations below the respective specifications of the environmental objective for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. The highest concentrations of NO2 and PM were found in the most polluted central parts of our largest cities.

    Excess mortality was used as the main health indicator. The total number of excess deaths due to air pollution exposure was estimated to be 7600 in 2015. Of these, we estimated that approximately 3600 deaths per year were associated with exposure to regional background, 900 from local wood burning, 215 due to road dust and approximately 2850 deaths per year from vehicle exhaust.

    Based on these results the health impacts from exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were conservatively estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~56 billion Krona in 2015. Just absence from work and studies was estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~0.4% of GDP in Sweden.

  • 72.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. SCB.
    Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Sweden: Review of Methodology and Estimated Emissions Reported to the UNFCCC and the EU monitoring Mechanism2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden reports emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) annually to the UNFCCC and the EU Monitoring Mechanism. Emissions of F-gases amounted to about 2 per cent of national total emissions 2009 and show an increasing trend since 1990. National and international regulations have entered into force in order to reduce emissions of F-gases. The national system for estimating emission of F-gases is based on national statistics from the Swedish Chemicals Agency and additional information sources. Due to the projected reduction of emissions in the near future, there has been an increasing focus on the reliability of the monitoring of such changes over time, especially for certain sub-categories such as F-gases from mobile air-conditioning equipment.

    The aim of this study has been to improve the quality of the collection and emission estimation system in Sweden for F-gases reported to the UNFCCC and the EU Monitoring Mechanism and especially in order to enable better annual follow-up of changes in chemicals flows and emissions of F-gases e.g. due to increased amounts of HFC recovered and the enforced national and international legislations.

    The national statistics available and the most important additional information sources and emission factors have been reviewed in this study. The results of this study show that the national statistics from the Swedish Chemicals Agency and the additional information sources continues to be a good foundation for the Swedish emission inventory reporting.

    In this study no major adjustments are recommended for the collection and emission estimation system, but there are some suggestions on modifications of emission factors and model macros. In addition, this study includes several recommendations for future improvements on emission inventory quality control checks as well as on national data management procedures.

  • 73.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gerner, Annika
    SCB.
    Lidén, Maria
    SCB.
    Emissions from integrated iron and steel industry i Sweden: Model for estimation and allocation of energy consump-tion and CO2 emissions for reporting to the UNFCCC2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB’s two integrated iron and steel production plants in Luleå and Oxelösund are among the largest point sources of greenhouse gases in Sweden. Their reported emissions included in Sweden’s annual submission to the UNFCCC have been reviewed and revised in several previous studies. In a 2010 SMED pilot study it was concluded that there was a need to further review the energy allocation model for the Luleå and Oxelösund plants as well as the reported energy consumption and CO

    2 emissions from excess energy gases utilized outside the SSAB premises for power and heat production. In the light of the pilot study, this study aimed at de-veloping a robust and sustainable model for present reported time-series for future estimations.

    In cooperation with SSAB representatives, information on annual material input, calorific values and energy flows were assessed and used as basis for estimation of total energy consumption and model for energy allocation. In addition, energy statistics from Statistics Sweden and EU ETS data were evaluated. The results show that the present estimations of energy consumption in the IPCC energy sector based on data from the plant-specific annual environmental reports and energy statistics from Statistics Sweden are sufficient also for future reporting to the UNFCCC. Furthermore, this report includes recommendations on revisions and future reporting of CO

    2 emissions from combustion of SSAB excess energy gases (reported in CRF 1A1a) as well as of energy allocated to non-energy use of fuels in industrial processes (CRF 2C1) and feedstocks (CRF 1Ad).

  • 74.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jerksjö, Martin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Prognoser för emissioner till luft till år 2030: Dokumentation av antaganden för prognostiserade väg-trafikpartiklar från icke bränslerelaterade källor samt emissioner från industriprocesser, lösningsmedelsan-vändning och fluorerade gaser2011Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. SCB.
    Jerksjö, Martin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Prognoser för emissioner till luft till år 2030: Dokumentation av antaganden för prognostiserade väg-trafikpartiklar från icke bränslerelaterade källor samt emissioner från industriprocesser, lösningsmedelsan-vändning och fluorerade gaser2011Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Gerner, Annika
    SCB.
    Riktad kvalitetskontrollstudie av utsläpp från kemiindustrin i Sveriges internationella rapportering: Utsläpp rapporterade till UNFCCC, EU Monitoring Mechanism, CLRTAP och NEC2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, PAH, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn from chemical industries reported by Sweden to the EU Monitoring Mechanism, the EU NEC Directive, UNFCCC and CLRTAP have been investigated in this study.

    Data reported by Sweden for these sectors have been compared on a plant level with data from other data sources (companies' environmental reports) and discrep-ancies have been noted. Several shortcomings have been found in the international-ly reported inventory data and suggestions on improvements have been made which will increase the quality in coming submissions once they are implemented.

  • 77.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Gerner, Annika
    SCB.
    Riktad kvalitetskontrollstudie av utsläpp från kemiindustrin i Sveriges internationella rapportering: Utsläpp rapporterade till UNFCCC, EU Monitoring Mechanism, CLRTAP och NEC2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, PAH, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn from chemical industries reported by Sweden to the EU Monitoring Mechanism, the EU NEC Directive, UNFCCC and CLRTAP have been investigated in this study.

    Data reported by Sweden for these sectors have been compared on a plant level with data from other data sources (companies' environmental reports) and discrep-ancies have been noted. Several shortcomings have been found in the international-ly reported inventory data and suggestions on improvements have been made which will increase the quality in coming submissions once they are implemented

  • 78.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Skårman, Tina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Development of the inventory of heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, HCB and PCBs for Sweden's reporting to CLRTAP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden annually reports emissions to air to the UNECE Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). As Party to the Convention, in 2000 Sweden ratified the Aarhus Protocols on Heavy Metal and on Persistent Or-ganic Pollutants (POPs), committing to reduce its protocol emissions below the 1990 level. However, the Swedish emission inventories on HM and POPs are in-complete and associated with large uncertainties. The aim of this study was to as-sess the need for updating and improving the Swedish inventory reporting of heavy metals and POPs emissions to air. As information from industrial plants for some sectors are scarce, in this study information from the EEA/EMEP Guidebook and other Nordic countries have been scrutinized to enable good coverage of emission sources.

    Based on the results of this study there are several indications that the heavy metals and POPs inventories are in need of improvement. Especially for HCB and PCB the need is substantial due to the lack of reported emission sources in the Swedish inventories. Based on information from annual plant-specific environmental re-ports, information on process-related heavy metals emissions from cement produc-tion and metal production are available for implementation or further quality re-view. Moreover, this study shows that where the inventories are lacking emission sources, information available in the Guidebook or in other Nordic countries’ emis-sion inventories could be used as a complement. Several recommendations on im-

    provements are presented in this study.

  • 79.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Skårman, Tina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Development of the inventory of heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, HCB and PCBs for Sweden's reporting to CLRTAP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden annually reports emissions to air to the UNECE Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). As Party to the Convention, in 2000 Sweden ratified the Aarhus Protocols on Heavy Metal and on Persistent Or-ganic Pollutants (POPs), committing to reduce its protocol emissions below the 1990 level. However, the Swedish emission inventories on HM and POPs are in-complete and associated with large uncertainties. The aim of this study was to as-sess the need for updating and improving the Swedish inventory reporting of heavy metals and POPs emissions to air. As information from industrial plants for some sectors are scarce, in this study information from the EEA/EMEP Guidebook and other Nordic countries have been scrutinized to enable good coverage of emission sources.

    Based on the results of this study there are several indications that the heavy metals and POPs inventories are in need of improvement. Especially for HCB and PCB the need is substantial due to the lack of reported emission sources in the Swedish inventories. Based on information from annual plant-specific environmental re-ports, information on process-related heavy metals emissions from cement produc-tion and metal production are available for implementation or further quality re-view. Moreover, this study shows that where the inventories are lacking emission sources, information available in the Guidebook or in other Nordic countries’ emis-sion inventories could be used as a complement. Several recommendations on im-provements are presented in this study

  • 80.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Westerberg, Ida
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Widén-Nilsson, Elin
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Osäkerhetsanalys av kväveretention i HBV-NP-modellen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kväve från olika källor som reningsverk, dagvatten och atmosfärsdeposition transporteras med vattnet genom mark, sjöar och vattendrag mot havet. På vägen reduceras en del kväve genom biogeokemiska processer som växtupptag, denitrifikation och sedimentation. Denna retention är svår att mäta men kan skattas med vatten-kvalitetsmodeller som matematiskt beskriver dessa processer.

    Svenska MiljöemissionsData (SMED) ansvarar för de svenska beräkningarna som ligger till grund för rapporteringen av Sveriges belastning på Östersjön genom HELCOM:

    PLC-Annual och PLC-Periodical. I PLC-Annual beräknas retention av kväve och fosfor med SMHIs vattenkvalitetsmodell HBV-NP (Brandt, 1990; Ar-heimer och Brandt, 1998).

    Inom arbetet med svensk vattenförvaltning används beräkningsresultat från PLC5-rapporteringen i brist på observerade data. Modellresultat är behäftade med osäker-het som ett resultat av osäkerheter i såväl data som modellens beskrivning av verk-ligheten. Få studier har undersökt osäkerhet i modellering av kvävebelastning och kväveretention. Efter rapporteringen till PLC5 gjordes inom SMED ett försök att kvantifiera osäkerhet i bruttobelastning till följd av osäkerhet i indata i PLC5-beräkningarna (Widén-Nilsson m.fl., 2010). Studien visade att de olika indatakäl-lorna bitvis är behäftade med stora osäkerheter, vilket även kan få stort genomslag på den totala bruttobelastningen. För att på sikt komma fram till osäkerhetsintervall för de nationella nettobelastningsberäkningarna behöver osäkerheten i retentions-beräkningarna också studeras.

    Syftet med denna studie var att identifiera och kvantifiera de största osäkerheterna i retentionsberäkningarna för PLC5-rapporteringen. Projektet avgränsades till att endast omfatta analyser av kväve. Öreälven, Helge å, Rönne å och Skräbeån valdes ut för studien baserat på datatillgång.

    Flera olika typer av osäkerheter som påverkar den modellerade retentionen stude-rades. Först analyserades kalibreringsmetodens inverkan genom manuell kalibre-ring av modellen av flera oberoende modellerare samt med en Monte Carlo-analys. Vid Monte Carlo-analysen kördes modellen 5 000 gånger med slumpmässigt valda värden för retentionsparametrarna. Av de 5 000 simuleringarna valdes de 1 000 simuleringarna med bäst överrensstämmelse mellan observerat och simulerat kväve ut. Urvalet baserades på ett utvärderingskriterium som mätte andel av tiden som de simulerade värdena var innanför osäkerheten i de observerade värdena. Osäkerhet-en i de observerade kvävekoncentrationerna var ibland betydande. Analysen visade att många olika kombinationer av parametervärden gav jämförbara resultat. Inga simuleringar var innanför de observerade osäkerhetsgränserna vid alla tidpunkter och generellt sett beskrev modellen dynamiken i oorganiskt kväve bättre än för totalkväve och organiskt kväve. PLC5-simuleringarna jämförde sig i flera fall väl med de bästa simuleringarna från Monte Carlo-analysen.

    För Helge å och Rönne å var skillnaden i retention liten mellan de olika manuella kalibreringarna och beräkningen i PLC5. Skillnaden mellan de tre oberoende kalibreringarna var störst för det avrinningsområde som hade lägst antal observationspunkter, Öreälven skiljde sig ca 10 % jämfört med den beräknade totala retentionen enligt PLC5. Den manuella kalibreringen utvärderades även i ett proxy-basin test i ett närliggande område, Skräbeån, som ligger öster om Helge å. Skillnaden i medelretentionen 1984–2004 för Skräbeån, med kalibreringsparametrar för Helge å, var som högst 12 % mellan högsta och lägsta beräkningsscenario. Jämförelsen visar på vikten av mätdata att kalibrera modellen mot för att begränsa osäkerheter på grund av olika kalibreringsmetodik.

    Resultatet från den första analysen användes sedan till att undersöka effekten av olika förändrade förutsättningar; ett högbelastande och ett lågbelastande scenario för förändrad bruttobelastning, scenarier för förändrad jordart samt för förändrad grödofördelning. Samma metodik som i den tidigare studien av Widén-Nilsson m.fl. (2010) användes för att skatta osäkerheten i bruttobelastning och effekten på de simulerade resultaten var störst i Öreälven som normalt hade lägst retention.

    Utifrån resultat från den manuella kalibreringen, beräknades två olika scenarier för förändrat läckage från jordbruksmark där jordarten hade en finare respektive grövre textur jämfört med PLC5. Jordartsanalysen med det höga läckaget kompletterades för Rönne å med en analys av en förändrad grödofördelning. Scenarier med föränd-rad fördelning av jordarter gav en försumbar effekt på den totala retentionen i alla huvudavrinningsområden. I Rönne å gav förändrad gröda en effekt på i genomsnitt 5 %.

    Osäkerhet i vattenföringsdata beräknades utifrån avvikelsen mellan uppmätt och från avbördningskurvan beräknad vattenföring. Osäkerheterna låg inom ett inter-vall av -50 till +30 %, med de största osäkerheterna för de lägsta och högsta flö-dena. Effekten av denna osäkerhet i vattenföring på de simulerade resultaten var i vissa fall stor, för en station var skillnaden i medelretention omkring 20 %.

    Förändringen av sjöretention analyserades i varje PLC-område genom att sjöyta respektive djup varierades med ±10 % och ±30 %. Osäkerheter i form av förändrad sjöyta var mer avgörande i små PLC-områden. Där får små sjöar förhållandevis större betydelse än i stora områden.

    Sammanfattningsvis visade studien på vikten av osäkerhetsanalys vid modellka-librering och vikten av kvantifiering av överrensstämmelsen med observationsdata, såväl som vikten av observationsdata för att begränsa osäkerheter i simulerade resultat. Osäkerheter i indata och fysikaliska parametrar i modellen får särskild betydelse i oövervakade områden där modellkalibreringen inte kan kompensera för sådana osäkerheter.

  • 81.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Westerberg, Ida
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Widén-Nilsson, Elin
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Osäkerhetsanalys av kväveretention i HBV-NP-modellen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kväve från olika källor som reningsverk, dagvatten och atmosfärsdeposition trans-porteras med vattnet genom mark, sjöar och vattendrag mot havet. På vägen redu-ceras en del kväve genom biogeokemiska processer som växtupptag, denitrifikation och sedimentation. Denna retention är svår att mäta men kan skattas med vatten-kvalitetsmodeller som matematiskt beskriver dessa processer.

    Svenska MiljöemissionsData (SMED) ansvarar för de svenska beräkningarna som ligger till grund för rapporteringen av Sveriges belastning på Östersjön genom HELCOM: PLC-Annual och PLC-Periodical. I PLC-Annual beräknas retention av kväve och fosfor med SMHIs vattenkvalitetsmodell HBV-NP (Brandt, 1990; Ar-heimer och Brandt, 1998).

    Inom arbetet med svensk vattenförvaltning används beräkningsresultat från PLC5-rapporteringen i brist på observerade data. Modellresultat är behäftade med osäker-het som ett resultat av osäkerheter i såväl data som modellens beskrivning av verk-ligheten. Få studier har undersökt osäkerhet i modellering av kvävebelastning och kväveretention. Efter rapporteringen till PLC5 gjordes inom SMED ett försök att kvantifiera osäkerhet i bruttobelastning till följd av osäkerhet i indata i PLC5-beräkningarna (Widén-Nilsson m.fl., 2010). Studien visade att de olika indatakäl-lorna bitvis är behäftade med stora osäkerheter, vilket även kan få stort genomslag på den totala bruttobelastningen. För att på sikt komma fram till osäkerhetsintervall för de nationella nettobelastningsberäkningarna behöver osäkerheten i retentions-beräkningarna också studeras.

    Syftet med denna studie var att identifiera och kvantifiera de största osäkerheterna i retentionsberäkningarna för PLC5-rapporteringen. Projektet avgränsades till att endast omfatta analyser av kväve. Öreälven, Helge å, Rönne å och Skräbeån valdes ut för studien baserat på datatillgång.

    Flera olika typer av osäkerheter som påverkar den modellerade retentionen stude-rades. Först analyserades kalibreringsmetodens inverkan genom manuell kalibre-ring av modellen av flera oberoende modellerare samt med en Monte Carlo-analys. Vid Monte Carlo-analysen kördes modellen 5 000 gånger med slumpmässigt valda värden för retentionsparametrarna. Av de 5 000 simuleringarna valdes de 1 000 simuleringarna med bäst överrensstämmelse mellan observerat och simulerat kväve ut. Urvalet baserades på ett utvärderingskriterium som mätte andel av tiden som de simulerade värdena var innanför osäkerheten i de observerade värdena. Osäkerhet-en i de observerade kvävekoncentrationerna var ibland betydande. Analysen visade att många olika kombinationer av parametervärden gav jämförbara resultat. Inga simuleringar var innanför de observerade osäkerhetsgränserna vid alla tidpunkter och generellt sett beskrev modellen dynamiken i oorganiskt kväve bättre än för totalkväve och organiskt kväve. PLC5-simuleringarna jämförde sig i flera fall väl med de bästa simuleringarna från Monte Carlo-analysen. HAVS- OCH VATTENMYNDIGHETEN Rapport

    8

    För Helge å och Rönne å var skillnaden i retention liten mellan de olika manuella kalibreringarna och beräkningen i PLC5. Skillnaden mellan de tre oberoende kalibreringarna var störst för det avrinningsområde som hade lägst antal observationspunkter, Öreälven skiljde sig ca 10 % jämfört med den beräknade totala retentionen enligt PLC5. Den manuella kalibreringen utvärderades även i ett proxy-basin test i ett närliggande område, Skräbeån, som ligger öster om Helge å. Skillnaden i medelretentionen 1984–2004 för Skräbeån, med kalibreringsparametrar för Helge å, var som högst 12 % mellan högsta och lägsta beräkningsscenario. Jämförelsen visar på vikten av mätdata att kalibrera modellen mot för att begränsa osäkerheter på grund av olika kalibreringsmetodik.

    Resultatet från den första analysen användes sedan till att undersöka effekten av olika förändrade förutsättningar; ett högbelastande och ett lågbelastande scenario för förändrad bruttobelastning, scenarier för förändrad jordart samt för förändrad grödofördelning. Samma metodik som i den tidigare studien av Widén-Nilsson m.fl. (2010) användes för att skatta osäkerheten i bruttobelastning och effekten på de simulerade resultaten var störst i Öreälven som normalt hade lägst retention.

    Utifrån resultat från den manuella kalibreringen, beräknades två olika scenarier för förändrat läckage från jordbruksmark där jordarten hade en finare respektive grövre textur jämfört med PLC5. Jordartsanalysen med det höga läckaget kompletterades för Rönne å med en analys av en förändrad grödofördelning. Scenarier med föränd-rad fördelning av jordarter gav en försumbar effekt på den totala retentionen i alla huvudavrinningsområden. I Rönne å gav förändrad gröda en effekt på i genomsnitt 5 %.

    Osäkerhet i vattenföringsdata beräknades utifrån avvikelsen mellan uppmätt och från avbördningskurvan beräknad vattenföring. Osäkerheterna låg inom ett inter-vall av -50 till +30 %, med de största osäkerheterna för de lägsta och högsta flö-dena. Effekten av denna osäkerhet i vattenföring på de simulerade resultaten var i vissa fall stor, för en station var skillnaden i medelretention omkring 20 %.

    Förändringen av sjöretention analyserades i varje PLC-område genom att sjöyta respektive djup varierades med ±10 % och ±30 %. Osäkerheter i form av förändrad sjöyta var mer avgörande i små PLC-områden. Där får små sjöar förhållandevis större betydelse än i stora områden.

    Sammanfattningsvis visade studien på vikten av osäkerhetsanalys vid modellka-librering och vikten av kvantifiering av överrensstämmelsen med observationsdata, såväl som vikten av observationsdata för att begränsa osäkerheter i simulerade resultat. Osäkerheter i indata och fysikaliska parametrar i modellen får särskild betydelse i oövervakade områden där modellkalibreringen inte kan kompensera för sådana osäkerheter.

  • 82.
    Haglund,, Peter
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Analysis of new brominated flame retardants in human serum and background air2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study

    of selected emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has been carried out. The study

    build on an earlier screening study including most of the target analytes ”Screening of

    Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants and Polybrominated dibenzofurans”. In the cited

    study many of the analytes were not detected possibly due to low concentrations in relation

    to the instrumental detection limits.

    In the current study a more sensitive mass spectrometric technique Gas Chromatography -

    High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was used to improve the detection

    frequency. In addition, five more emerging BFRs that have been highlighted in a recent

    European Food Safety Authority report were also included.

    The overall objective of this screening study was to determine the concentrations of

    selected BFRs and a group of well-known BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs),

    in ambient air and in human serum, to highlight an important global transport pathway in

    the environment and the degree of human exposure, respectively.

    Most of the emerging flame retardants occurred in all of the air samples. The mean

    concentration of several emerging flame retardants (TBECH, HBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE,

    DBDPE, and Dechlorane Plus) was between 10% and 60% of that of BDE-209, the most

    abundant PBDE.

    The mean concentrations of the brominated phenols were generally higher than BDE-209.

    The concentrations of monobromo phenols and 2,4-dibromophenol were at least an order

    of magnitude higher than BDE-209, whilst 2,4,6-Tribromophenol was 4-fold higher than

    BDE-209.

    The emerging FRs, brominated phenols and PBDEs all occurs at elevated concentrations

    during the summer period in Pallas in Northern Finland, which illustrates the potential for

    atmospheric long range transport and the positive influence of temperature on

    contaminant mobility.

    The brominated phenols also showed a temporal trend at the Swedish West Coast site Råö,

    with elevated concentrations in the summer/autumn period, possible linked to increased

    natural production and emissions of these compounds during the summer period.

    Three of the emerging BFR were detected in human sera. Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-

    ethane (BTBPE) was found in all samples and at an average concentration higher than that

    of BDE-209. Pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate

    (EH-TBB) were found in roughly half of the samples. The levels of brominated

    phenols was much higher than those of BDE-209, with 2,4,6-tribromophenol as the most

    abundant, likley due to high metabolic resistance.

  • 83.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010: Subreport 1. Polychlorinated Naphthalenes (PCNs)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning Polychlorinated Naphthalenes (PCNs).

    PCNs were found in all samples analysed and based on the results it was possible to identify several sources of PCNs. Long-range air transport is most likely a significant pathway of PCNs. Further, municipal solid waste incinerators, municipal solid waste dump sites, metal processing facilities and chlor-alkali production plants all seem to emit PCNs. On the contrary, traffic is likely a minor source of PCNs.

    Sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants has a homologue pattern similar to that in air, which may indicate that PCNs mainly reach the sewer systems through collection of storm water. A gradient in PCN concentrations were also observed in sediments collected at increasing distance from Stockholm. However, the concentrations were in the range of background (offshore) sediments, which suggest that the urban impact on the PCN levels are minor to moderate.

    Decreasing PCN concentrations over time was observed for both herring and guillemot. For the latter, the time trend could be followed over the last 35 years. Over this period the PCN concentrations have dropped by one order of magnitude. However, during the last decade the levels has levelled off. Since the long term time-trend and short term temporal variations of the PCNs resembles closely those of the polychlorinated dibenzo-

    p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) they may share the same bioaccumulation/biomagnification pathways.

    Human milk was found to contain relatively high concentrations of PCNs. Expressed on relative biological potency (REP) basis the levels are similar to the total toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDD/F. The weekly PCN-REP intake for a 1-month baby was estimated to be 22 pg/kg body weight, which is above the tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg TEQ/kg body weight recommended by EU Scientific Committee of Food. That indicates that it may be time to consider the PCNs for inclusion in the TEQ concept of the World Health Organization (WHO) and assign the most toxic congeners consensus toxic equivalent factors (TEFs).

  • 84.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Liljelind, Per
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Hjelt, Maria
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Renberg, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Hazardous compounds released from textiles and the associated load they place on Swedish sewage treatment plants2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water from household laundry has been estimated to make up about 2% of the total volume flowing into municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Records of the chemicals used in the manufacture of textiles/clothing and analyses of both washed clothes and laundry wastewater indicate that a large number of environmentally harmful substances can potentially reach treatment plants. These substances, including fibers and micro plastics fromlaundry, may contribute to the pollution of sewage sludge used for fertilization of arable land, or pollute the receiving waters downstream of wastewater treatment plants.

    Textiles are one of the groups of consumer goods that the Environmental Objectives Committee proposed (SOU 2012: 38) be subject to a government mandate regarding the use of hazardous chemicals, environmental risk reduction measures and voluntary eco-labeling. The government has also decided (Ds 2012: 23) on interim measures aimed at removing toxic material from the environment, including providing information on hazardous substances in clothing. The Swedish environmental objectives system also includes the so-called "Generation target", that states that material life cycles should be as free as possible from hazardous substances and that consumption of goods should produce as few health and environmental problems as possible, including in all the countries where they were manufactured. The Generation target means that the Swedish government needs to take into account environmental and health impacts that Swedish consumption may cause in other countries. The EU Waste Framework Directive (2008/96 / EC) defines a waste hierarchy that puts the recycling of old products, such as clothing, before the recycling of waste. This study may inform those working on developing such directives.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which laundering of five types of clothing (cotton t-shirts, cotton jeans, work trousers, fleece sweaters and weatherproof jackets) contributes to the presence of toxic pollutants in sludge and effluent water from a representative sample of treatment plants.

    Experimental

    The choice of clothing was based on the study "Kartläggning av kemikalieanvändning i kläder" (Swerea IVF, Report 09/52) and were purchased in Umeå during January 2014.

    The different categories of clothing were washed twice in a washing machine, without drying them in between and all wastewater was collected from the washer. Immediately after washing, samples of this water were transferred into 2 L glass containers and were analyzed for 126 compounds by three different laboratories (Miljökemiska Laboratoriet, Umeå Universitet, Svenska Miljöinstitutet (IVL) och Stockholms Universitet (ACES)).

    5

    Results

    The results show that the main types of chemicals that were released when the clothing was washed, regardless of the type of clothing, were process and functional chemicals. This was expected since functional chemicals are added to the garment and are usually not chemically bonded to the fabric, whilst the process chemicals should not be present in the final product at all. Chemicals belonging to the group unwanted chemicals were released in very small amounts to the wastewater whatever type of clothing washed.

    The functional chemicals represented 30 % of the analyzed target compounds but accounted for up to 99% (for t-shirts) of the release when the clothing was washed. The lowest contribution of functional chemicals to the total release of chemicals was from weatherproof jackets. Process chemicals dominated those released from weatherproof jackets (90%) and fleece sweaters (72%); for working pants, the contribution was 41%. The unwanted chemicals were present in much lower amounts in the laundry wastewater than the functional and process chemicals: they represented 1% or less of the chemicals detected.

    T-shirts is estimated to release the largest amount of chemicals (469 kg functional chemicals, 0.5 kg process chemicals and 0.07 kg unwanted chemicals) based on the yearly net supply and the first two washing cycles. Fleece sweaters released the least amount of chemicals; 1.8 kg functional chemicals, 2.9 kg process chemicals and 3 g unwanted chemicals.

    Phthalates, DINCH (a phthalate substitute), bisphenols, formaldehyde, and organophosphates were the groups of chemicals estimated to be released in largest amounts from the five types of clothing included in the study, contributing 47%, 25%, 12%, 12%, and 3%, respectively, to the total amount.

    Based on the yearly net supply of clothing included in this study, the estimated release of textile fibers varies between 100 kg for fleece sweaters up to 8,500 kg for t-shirts. T-shirts released 0.85 mg fibers per kg, jeans released 0.46 mg/kg, weatherproof jackets 0.02 mg/kg, working pants 0.07 mg/kg and fleece sweaters 0.1 mg/kg.

    Discussion

    Phthalates and organophosphates were estimated to be released in large amounts (302 kg and 7.6 kg) contribute with 50% and 5% respectively to the amounts found in effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Chlorophenols and perfluorinated compounds were estimated to be released in very low amounts (430 g and 300 g respectively). This is however still more, 167% and 223% respectively, than what is found annually in the effluents and sewage sludge of all Swedish WWTPs.

    The estimated contribution to sewage sludge for the different compound classes was far higher than the calculated contribution to effluent. The estimation produced a contribution figure of over 100% for some compound groups. Short chain chloroparaffins and chlorophenols were estimated to contribute to the amount found in sewage sludge to such a large degree that it exceeded what is actually found in the sewage sludge. Chlorophenols are distributed between both effluent and sewage sludge, but reference data was only found for sludge, so this could be the reason for the overestimation of the amount that ends up in the sewage sludge. It can also not be excluded that the selection of clothing was not representative of what is on the market.

    6

    Conclusions

    Chemicals that are banned according to legislation such as Reach should, in principle, not be present in clothing. Even so, they are sometimes found during inspections of manufacturing facilities and analyses of clothing. This is a large problem since the use of a chemical can be banned in some countries but not in others. Arylamines are, for example, forbidden within the EU, but one of those 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane could still be detected in all types of clothing. Now, the clothing that we wear comes from all over the world, and it is difficult to find information on which chemicals have been used in its production since that can take place in many different countries. This tractability needs to be improved.

    In this study, we detected 72 out of 126 compounds that are non-naturally occurring compounds, in the laundry wastewater. Among the compound groups that could not be detected were anilines, triclosan, triclocarban, and siloxanes.

    The compounds released in large amounts into the laundry wastewater in this study were the process chemical bisphenol S (BPS), and the functional chemicals phthalates (DBP, BBP, DINP, DIDP), DINCH, organophosphates (TPP, TCEP, TCPP, TEHP, TBEP) and formaldehyde. Considering the net supply of new clothing to Sweden, the estimated annual contribution of the release of such compounds from new clothing being washed for the first time will be substantial.

    Even though some of these chemicals will be degraded during the treatment process in the WWTP, many of them will end up in effluent or sewage sludge and, to different degrees, contribute to the compounds that risk ending up in WWTPs or where nutrients are recycled from sewage sludge.

    Future work

    To obtain a better picture of the volume of chemicals flowing to the WWTPs and, potentially, the environment, originating from the laundering of clothing, it would be of interest to study the release of chemicals from a broader range of clothing types. It would also be interesting to include analysis of the fabric to see what proportion of chemicals are released during laundry, and what proportion remain and are then potentially released during later washing or enter the textile waste stream.

    It would also be of great interest to carry out non-target analysis on both the textiles and the wastewater to form an even broader picture of which chemicals are present in the textiles and the wastewater.

  • 85.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Blekinge län: Resultat till och med september 19992000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Blekinge Luftvårdsförbund har IVL mätt nedfall av luftföroreningar och markvattenkvalitet på olika platser i länet sedan 1985. Syftet är att beskriva nedfallets storlek och markvattnets sammansättning i skogsytorna, samt hur förhållandena ändras med tiden. Resultaten kan jämföras med förväntad utveckling i takt med att beslutade åtgärder genomförs. Flertalet ytor har samlokaliserats med Skogsvårdsorganisationens observationsytor och resultaten kan jämföras med uppgifter om skogens hälsa.

    Mätningarna visar att nedfallet av försurande svavel och kväve varit mindre i Blekinge län jämfört med situationen i Skåne. Däremot visar mätningarna större nedfall i Blekinge jämfört med länen längre norrut; Kronobergs, Kalmar, Jönköpings och Östergötlands län. Sedan mätningarna startade har nedfallet av svavel minskat kraftig samtidigt som nederbörden blivit mindre sur. För kväve är det svårt att se tydliga trender. Om avtalade utsläppsminskningar genomförs kommer depositionen av svavel och kväve att minska till år 2010. Markvattnet bär tydliga spår av flera decenniers belastning av försurande ämnen. Genomgående noteras surt markvatten i kombination med låga halter av baskatjoner och mycket höga halter av aluminium.

    Det hydrologiska året 1998/99 utmärker sig som det nederbördsrikaste sedan mätningarna startade 1985. Medelvärdet från länets samtliga sju lokaler var drygt 900 mm och nederbördens pH-värde var i genomsnitt 4,5. Nederbördens bidrag till kvävenedfallet var 10 kg per hektar. Till marken i de tre granytorna deponerades i genomsnitt 7 kg försurande svavel per hektar, med högst värde i Vång. Det innebär att nedfallet av svavel och kväve var på ungefär samma nivå under 1998/99 jämfört med året innan. Generellt gäller att markvattnet varit surt, cirka 4,5. Högst försurningsgrad, mätt som kvot mellan baskatjoner och aluminium, och störst risk för ekologiska skador indikeras från tallytan i Hjärtsjömåla samt granytorna i Vång och Björkefall.

  • 86.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Blekinge län: Resultat till och med september 20002001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Blekinge Luftvårdsförbund har IVL mätt nedfall av luftföroreningar och markvattenkvalitet på olika platser i länet sedan 1985. Syftet är att beskriva nedfallets storlek och markvattnets sammansättning i skogsytorna, samt hur förhållandena ändras med tiden. Resultaten kan jämföras med förväntad utveckling i takt med att beslutade åtgärder genomförs. Flertalet ytor har samlokaliserats med Skogsvårdsorganisationens observationsytor och resultaten kan jämföras med uppgifter om skogens hälsa.

    Mätningarna visar att nedfallet av försurande svavel och kväve varit mindre i Blekinge län jämfört med situationen i Skåne. Däremot visar mätningarna större nedfall i Blekinge jämfört med Kronobergs, Kalmar, Jönköpings och Östergötlands län. Sedan mätningarna startade har skillnaden mellan de olika regionerna och nedfallet av svavel minskat kraftig, samtidigt som nederbörden blivit mindre sur. För kväve är det svårt att se tydliga trender. Om avtalade utsläppsminskningar genomförs kommer depositionen av i första hand kväve, men även svavel, att minska till år 2010. Markvattnet bär tydliga spår av flera decenniers belastning av försurande ämnen. Genomgående noteras surt markvatten i kombination med låga halter av baskatjoner och mycket höga halter av aluminium.

    Mest utmärkande för det hydrologiska året från oktober 1999 till och med september 2000 är liten torrdeposition av svavel. Nedfallet av svavel till marken i granskogen var av samma storleksordning som nedfallet på öppet fält; 4 kg/ha, vilket är betydligt mindre än något år tidigare. Nedfallet av kväve var på samma nivå som tidigare år; 9 kg/ha. Liksom de två tidigare åren noterades relativt mycket nederbörd; 800 mm som medelvärde från samtliga sju lokaler och dess pH-värde var i genomsnitt 4,6. Generellt gäller att markvattnet varit surt; pH-värden runt 4,5 samt låga värden för den försurningsindikerande kvoten mellan baskatjoner och aluminium. Trots att nedfallet av svavel har minskat kraftigt visar statistiska beräkningar att markvattnets försurningsgrad, mätt på detta sätt, har ökat sedan mätningarna startade på Ryssberget samt i Hjärtsjömåla, Komperskulla, Vång och Björkefall.

  • 87.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Blekinge län: Resultat till och med september 20012002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Blekinge Luftvårdsförbund har IVL mätt nedfall av luftföroreningar och markvattenkvalitet på olika platser i länet sedan 1985. Syftet är att beskriva nedfallets storlek och markvattnets sammansättning i skogsytorna, samt hur förhållandena ändras med tiden. Resultaten kan jämföras med förväntad utveckling i takt med att beslutade åtgärder genomförs. Flertalet ytor har samlokaliserats med Skogsvårdsorganisationens observationsytor och resultaten kan jämföras med uppgifter om skogens hälsa. I Kallgårdsmåla fortsätter markvattenstudier sedan skogen avverkades år 2000.

    Mätningarna visar att nedfallet av försurande svavel och kväve varit mindre i Blekinge län jämfört med situationen i Skåne. Däremot visar mätningarna större nedfall i Blekinge jämfört med Kronobergs, Kalmar, Jönköpings och Östergötlands län. Sedan mätningarna startade har skillnaden mellan de olika regionerna och nedfallet av svavel minskat kraftig, samtidigt som nederbörden blivit mindre sur. För kväve är det svårt att se tydliga trender. Om avtalade utsläppsminskningar genomförs kommer depositionen av i första hand kväve, men även svavel, att minska till år 2010. Markvattnet bär tydliga spår av flera decenniers belastning av försurande ämnen. Genomgående noteras surt markvatten i kombination med låga halter av baskatjoner och mycket höga halter av aluminium.

    Hydrologiska året från oktober 2000 till och med september 2001 utmärker sig genom mycket rikligt nederbördsmängd samt större våtdeposition av kväve än något år tidigare sedan 1985. Dessutom var torrdepositionen av svavel den största sedan 1995/96. Som genomsnitt från tre lokaler noterades 1035 mm nederbörd med pH-värde 4,5. Nederbördens bidrag till nedfallet av oorganiskt kväve var i genomsnitt 12,6 kg/ha. Svavelnedfallet till marken i de två granytorna var i genomsnitt 8,2 kg/ha. Liksom tidigare år redovisas generellt sura förhållanden i markvattnet; pH-värden under 5 på samtliga lokaler och låga värden för den försurningsindikerande kvoten mellan baskatjoner och aluminium. Fyra av de sju lokalerna har generellt haft mycket låga pH-värden; 4,3-4,5. Som en följd av att nedfallet av svavel har halverats sedan slutet av 1980-talet har markvattnets innehåll av sulfatsvavel minskat på samtliga lokaler. Trots minskat svavelnedfall indikerar kvoten mellan baskatjoner och aluminium ökad försurningsgrad i markvatten från Ryssberget och Vång.

  • 88.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Blekinge län: Resultat till och med september 20032004Report (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Stockholm.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Stockholms län: Resultat tom september 20012002Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Övervakning av luftföroreningar i Västmanlands och Uppsala län: Resultat tom september 20012002Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Olle
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Luftföroreningar i mellersta Sverige: Nedfall, halter och effekter oktober 1994 och september 19951996Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svensson, Annika
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Olle
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Luftföroreningar i skogliga provytor: - Resultat till och med september 20022003Report (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Hanberg, Annika
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Högberg, Johan
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Berglund, Marika
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Bensryd, Inger
    University Hospital of Lund.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Remberger, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Calafat, Antonia
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Centre for Environmental Health, Atlanta.
    Appelgren, Malin
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Filipsson Falk, Agneta
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Jansson, Bo
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Håkansson, Helen
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Phthalates and their metabolites in human breast milk, blood and urine as measures for monitoring exposure in human risk groups2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att undersöka halter av ftalater i svenskar och vilken matris som bäst lämpar sig för hälsorelaterad miljöövervakning har ftalater och ftalatmetaboliter analyserats i en grupp kvinnor som nyligen fött barn. I samband med förlossning på Universitetssjukhuset i Lund tillfrågades förstföderskor om medverkan och 42 kvinnor kom att ingå i studien. När barnet var 2-3 veckor gammalt pumpade mamman ut 50 mL bröstmjölk. Blod- och urinprov togs en vecka senare. Omfattande förändringar av standardmetoder för provtagning av mjölk och blod gjordes för att minimera risken för kontaminering av proverna. För mjölkprovtagningen användes en specialkonstruerad manuell pump av polykarbonat med ftalatfri packning. Blodprov togs med hjälp av endast kanyl och provrör (eftersom propparna i vaccutainrör innehåller ftalater). Proverna förvarades i värmebehandlade glasbehållare och fosforsyra tillsattes för att motverka metabolism av ftalater i mjölk- och blodprover. Analyserna av bröstmjölk visade värden nära eller under detektionsgränsen (LOD) för flertalet ftalater eller deras metaboliter. Även i blod och serum var nivåerna vanligtvis nära eller under LOD. I urin analyserades endast metaboliter och dessa kunde kvantifieras i 53-100 % av proverna. Nivåerna av ftalatmetaboliter i urin hos de svenska kvinnorna var i paritet med nivåerna hos en allmänbefolkning i USA och Tyskland. Några klara korrelationer mellan nivåer i t ex urin och bröstmjölk respektive blod påvisades inte. Resultaten av studien anger att för närvarande är analys av ftalatmetaboliter i urin den mest framkomliga vägen för skattning av ftalatexponering hos människa. Provtagning och analys av mjölk och blod innebar betydligt större svårigheter. Framför allt framstår risken för kontaminering vid provtagning som betydande och en stor del av ftalaterna och dess metaboliter uppvisade låga halter, vid eller under LOD. Dessutom kan ftalater brytas ned i blod och mjölk. I flertalet internationella publicerade studier av ftalatexponering används urinmetabolit-analyser som ett mått på exponering för ftalater. I en nyligen publicerad amerikansk studie av ett 80-tal nyfödda pojkar sågs ett samband mellan kort ano-genitalt avstånd och nivåer av ftalatmetaboliter i urin hos deras mammor under graviditeten. Den amerikanska studien behöver bekräftas, men metaboliterna var desamma som i vår studie och en jämförelse visar att mediannivåerna var lägre för vissa men högre för andra metaboliter. Vår studie indikerar att svenska kvinnor i fertil ålder inte sällan exponeras för ftalater i nivåer som satts i samband med fosterpåverkan.

  • 94.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Helene
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Liljeberg, Marcus
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Skårman, Tina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Dunsö, Olof
    SCB.
    Segersson, David
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Diffusa emissioner till luft och vatten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a strong knowledge of point source discharges through the environ-mental reporting system. Point sources represent only a limited portion of the total emission. This means that the contribution of diffuse sources is important to map out the emission of various substances into the environment. Examples of diffuse sources are road traffic, agriculture, construction, use of solvents, fuel consumption in households, chemicals emitted during a product's use and small industries. To-day diffuse emissions to air are presented on the Swedish Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (UTIS). This data derives from the air/climate reportings CLRTAP and UNFCCC. Data at UTIS are presented for some organic contami-nants, for example PAH and heavy metals. Data on diffuse emissions to water is today not featured on UTIS. Some diffuse emissions to water are included in inter-national reporting, such as HELCOM PLC periodical and EEA WISE SoE Emis-sions.

    This project aims to:

     Present data on emissions from diffuse sources, primarily water, from se-lected sectors and substances / substance groups.

     Compare the developed emission data with respect to size with the report-ed E-PRTR data.

     Based on lessons learned from the project suggest how collection of dif-fuse emission data can be implemented in a more routine manner.

    The substances included in the project are nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals (lead, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel and zinc) and certain organic com-pounds (PAHs, PBDEs, nonylphenol, PCBs, HCH, DDT, endosulfan and dioxins). For the organic substances, there is no data for some matrices.

    The project consists of four separate subprojects:

     Diffuse emissions of metals and nutrients to waterDiffuse emissions of cer-tain organic pollutants to waterDiffuse emissions of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates from different product groupsAnalyses of report-ed data to air and water, and comparison with diffuse emissionProject 1 covers the following diffuse sources: atmospheric deposition directly on water, forests, agriculture, other land use, storm water, private sewers and industrial and sewage treatment plants which are not reported to E-PRTR. In the analysis of cop-per, emission from use of antifouling paint is included. The results of subproject 1 show that for nitrogen and phosphorus the most important emission source is agri-cultural land and forests. Forestry dominates as the source of all metals. For most metals diffuse emission from agriculture, atmospheric deposition on the water surface, other land and storm water is significant. The geographical distribution shows that storm water is more significant in the south (Northern Baltic -, Southern Baltic - and North Sea water district) than in the north (Bothnian Bay - and Both-nian Sea water district), as was expected because there is more traffic in the south. Data from the water reporting may in the future be easily be recalculated in the

    11

    geo-database to fit the presentation on UTIS. Coordination with those who produce water statistics is a precondition for this.

    The results from subprojects 2 shows that there is only data for a few PRTR sub-stances; PAHs, PBDEs, nonylphenol, dioxins, DEHP, PCBs, HCH, DDT, endosul-fan and chlorinated paraffins. For many of these substances there are only data for one or a few diffuse sources (small industries, small treatment plants, atmospheric deposition on directly to water, storm water and deposition on land). The data on the diffuse emission of organic pollutants that exist today are uncertain and are based on few measurements.

    Project 3 shows that it is possible to estimate emissions to air, soil and wastewater of nonylphenols (NPequ). The main source of NPequ to sewage water is from textiles, and a small amount from detergents. The data are very uncertain because they are based on emission factors with large uncertainties.

    Finally, the results from subproject 4 show that the diffuse emissions are signifi-cant. The diffuse emission of nitrogen, phosphorus and metals to water is at least 10 times or more, in almost all cases, compared to point sources. Agricultural land dominates as a source in the case of phosphorus and nitrogen. For organic sub-stances to water there are large gaps in the data because few companies report emissions. With regard to emission of organic substances and metals into the air, the difference between the point sources (E PRTR) and the diffuse emissions based on data from CLRTAP are in most cases not as great as for water. For copper the diffuse emission to air from brakelinings is the largest source of diffuse emission (>90 %). For PAH, the diffuse emission from the energy sector is dominating, responding to almost 100 % of the total emissions. The emission from each sub-stance is in almost all cases greater to water than to air in the case of point sources, diffuse sources and total. When comparing emissions from various industries, it can be seen that facilities from forest industry contributes with 90 % when it comes to emissions of cadmium to water from point sources according to E-PRTR (total 440 kg). It is still much lower than the diffuse emission presented in subproject 1 which has a total emission of 3900 kg. That means that the diffuse emission is almost 9 times larger. The difference between point sources reported to E-PRTR and those not reported to E-PRTR (UTIS) is not great, for discharges to water. It shows that the E-PRTR has a threshold that includes most of emissions to water.

    Based on the quality aspects of the data it is recommended to show diffuse emis-sions of both nutrients and metals on UTIS on national level, at water district or a finer level, because data is based on reported values to the EU and HELCOM. In the case of organic substances to water and nonylphenol from products it is not recommended to show them on UTIS due to data uncertainty. For emissions to air, it is concluded that the national totals, as reported to the UNFCCC and CLRTAP could be included in the presentation on UTIS.12

  • 95.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bibi, Momina
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bodholm, Sara
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Braun, Henrik
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hageström, Ulla
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norén, Katja
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rehngren, Erika
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Liljelind, Per
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Hjelt, Maria
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Sjöström, Anna-Kitti
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU.
    Övervakning av miljögifter i havskräfta och hummer: Bohus- och Hallandskusten2014Report (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Helena
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Skårman, Tina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Johansson, Malin
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Långsiktig Plan för Programområdet Farliga Ämnen2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a long term plan for the program area "hazardous substances". The plan is a guidance document for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's (SEPA:s) priorities in the field, and for project planning and coordination within SMED. The plan has been harmonized with SEPA. With regard to investigation, reporting and participation in conferences the plan reach until 2012, when an update of this document is planned. The work has been performed in four areas:

    1. Reporting requirements

    2. Situation analysis and national reporting requirements

    3. International activities related to PRTR

    4. Design of long-term plan with the project proposals, this includes devel-opment of the Swedish Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (UTIS) and E-PRTR reporting

    The first reporting to the E-PRTR was made 2009-06-30 which related to the 2007 data. After that, data should be reported to the E-PRTR annually on 31 March. Both PRTR and E-PRTR aims to establish a register of emissions and transfer of pollutants, to facilitate public participation in decision-making in the environmental field and helping to prevent and reduce pollution of the environment. 86 and 91 substances respectively must be reported to PRTR and E-PRTR. A threshold is associated with each substance and if the threshold is exceeded, the substance should be reported. 65 different activities are requested under PRTR and E-PRTR. Whether an activity should be reported or not is determined by means of capacity thresholds. Emissions from diffuse sources should be reported to the PRTR for individual countries. To the E-PRTR the commission arrange the reporting of dif-fuse emissions. Data will be based on existing reporting by member countries (e.g. UNFCCC, CLRTAP). However, there is a lack of methodology and data today to make a comprehensive reporting.

    The situation analysis shows that there is extensive work in many countries in this field. The Swedish research program ChEmiTecs is working to increase the knowl-edge on emissions of organic substances from products, The Swedish Chemical Agency has developed The Commodity Guide, which for example shows what substances could be present in various products and Statistics Sweden has devel-oped Material Flow Statistics. Emission data is reported internationally through several conventions and directives. On a national basis SEPA is using data for follow up of the national environmental quality objectives, and as a basis for inves-tigations ordered by the Swedish government. In consultation with SEPA the international activities included in this report has been restricted to reporting under the PRTR/E-PRTR and its relation to other inter-national conventions and agreements and dissemination and compilation of a num-ber of relevant EU and OECD projects. 9

    The long-term plan includes the next two years of investigation, reporting and participation in international meetings (OECD and UN). Other proposals deals with about how to report more data on UTIS, diffuse emissions, solvent emissions from households, long-range transport of substances and to link environmental monitor-ing data to environmental emission data. For E-PRTR reporting, there are several proposals related to different types of coverage and quality of work: e.g. compare companies within a sector, find a methodology to cover small and medium-sized businesses. There are also proposals to estimate diffuse emissions from products.

  • 97.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Green, Jeanette
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Belastning av miljögifter på vatten: Kartläggning av källor till miljögifter2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles information about the load of organic pollutants and metals to surface water. Within this project, 16 substances and substance groups were selected. These substances are listed in the Water Framework Directive and/or in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) and are interesting from both a national and a regional perspective on monitoring.

    In order to give a proposal to a calculation methodology of the emission load of organic pollutants to water, an inventory of available data was performed. The compilation presents the environmental monitoring data and other data sources which may form the basis for emission calculations. A general conclusion is that the data on point sources for organic pollutants are brief in the emission database. With the exception of certain individual organic substances in the EMIR-database, only data on the emission of metals is available. Point sources to surface water are industries, mines, sewage treatment plants, heating plants and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The diffuse emission sources of pollutants are atmospheric deposition, leachate from landfills, agricultural and forest land, storm water and re-emission from the sediment.

    This report gives a proposal to methodology for quantification of emissions of organic pollutants and metals to surface water. If possible, the calculations should primarily be based on pure emission data. If these are not available the environmental monitoring data may be used in order to calculate the emissions. Screening data and other regional data and results from individual research reports can be used in the absence of other information. In cases where the pure emission data and monitoring data are missing, statistics from product registers may be used as an indicator of trends, or a measure of the diffuse load.

    In this report, we have quantified the load of metals and some organic substances from the atmospheric deposition and from point sources. These results indicate that for the metals the contribution from the atmosphere is greater than emissions from the point sources, but it is also important to point out that the results are partly based on uncertain data. For the organic substances the diffuse emissions are also considered as important as a source to surface waters.

    In order to be able to perform better emission estimates, further improvement of the methodology should be done. Furthermore, access to better data is also required.

  • 98.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    One-off survey of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol and short chained chlorinated paraffins in the Göta Älv estuary, Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Research Institute (IVL) has performed measurements of 2,4,6-tri-tert butylphenol and Short Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (SCCPs) in sediments. The study has been carried out based on Annex 2: Strategy for a base line one off survey for SCCPs (Agenda Item 7, ASMO 06/7/2-E-(L)) and from the OSPAR meeting, Meeting of the environmental assessment and monitoring committee (ASMO, Hamburg: 24-28 April 2006). These measurements is a Swedish contribution to an “OSPAR base line one off survey” with sampling and analysis of SCCPs and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol in sediments collected in Göta Älv estuary on the Swedish west coast. This sampling was planned according to the advice to the design of the one-off surveys of chemicals identified for priority actions by ICES 2005 according to points 1-3: 1. The purpose of the one-off surveys is to gain a rapid overview of the occurrence of certain priority chemicals in the marine environment. This could be achieved already by small scale surveys through a limited number of samples, using one sampling type only (for example sediments) and concentrating sampling in estuaries; 2. A minimum of five samples per Contracting Party was required for a focused survey comprising one sample for reference, two samples from polluted areas and two samples from less polluted areas; 3. Sampling could be carried out for the purpose of several one-off surveys for different substances if provided in quantities of 50-500 g of the top centimetres of the sediments. If frozen and kept in a sample bank, the samples could be used at any time when the budget became available for their analysis and for the completion of the survey; This project was carried out in cooperation between IVL and the consultant Marine Monitoring Ltd. Apart from the 2,4,6-tri-tert butylphenol, analysis of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol were also included in this study.

  • 99.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström- Lundén, Eva
    Leppanen, Sirkka
    Atmospheric concentrations in air and deposition fluxes of POPs at Råö and Pallas trends and seasonal and spatial variations2006Report (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2013 Assessment of the occurrence of stormwater related substances in sewagesludge and effluent water2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The total inflow of wastewater to a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) may be divided in sanitary sewer and additional water. The additional water may further be divided into three compartments: groundwater or soil water that leaks or drains into the sewage system; runoff from roofs and paved surfaces connected to the sewage system due to direct impact of precipitation (stormwater); runoff from e.g. paved surfaces and green surfaces that infiltrates through soil and may leak to the sewage system or as leakage from stormwater system to the sewage system.

    In order to determine the shares of stormwater in the load to the selected WWTPs, annual environmental reports from these plants were used together with information obtained by personal communication with the WWTPs. Generally, the level of knowledge concerning the proportion of stormwater in the influent varied among the different WWTPs. Some of the WWTPs had modelled data, other not. Estimates from WWTPs for which inflow of stormwater could be separated from the total inflow of additional water (Henriksdal, Gässlösa, Ryaverket and Borlänge WWTP) showed that the share varied between 9 and 30%. The highest shares were found in Henriksdal in Stockholm.

    Results from the Swedish EPA monitoring programme of sludge and effluent were analysed with multivariate methods to determine if any co-variation exist between share of stormwater inflow, for which additional water was used as an approximation, and measured concentrations of metals and organic substances. Also the change over time was studied with this methodology.

    The results from the multivariate analyses showed that there is a grouping according to when the monitoring was performed. The monitoring performed in 2006 and 2007 differed from the rest. The analyses with multivariate method also showed that it was hard to seeany trends regarding the additional water and its influence on the concentrations of pollutants in sludge or water. New measurements at the inflow to the WWTP and on sludge samples together with additional parameters, such as antimony or other specific markers, which could contribute to the explanation of the load from additional waters, are needed. Time trends at the different sites were observed with the present data but no correlation with the amount of additional water was however seen. It is clear that the use of “additional water” as an approximation for stormwater is not ideal. Better estimates of the stormwater share could perhaps reveal correlations in the data that was now hidden.

    Effluent and sludge from the WWTPs Henriksdal, Ryaverken, Gässlösa and Bollebygd, and also sediment sampled downstream of the plants were chemically analysed on alkyl phenols, major phthalates, PAHs and metals. Multivariate modelling did not reveal any correlation between any of the measured parameters and the share of additional water, which was used as an estimate for the share of stormwater. As above, a better estimate of the stormwater share than “additional water” would have been beneficial.

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