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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lennart
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Bryngelsson, Ing Liss
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft Lindesberg 2005/20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den allmänna befolkningens exponering för bensen, butadien, formaldehyd,

    kvävedioxid samt partiklar PM 2,5 i Lindesberg har studerats från oktober 2005

    till och med januari 2006. Totalt ingick 40 personer och 60 personburna mätningar

    (exponeringsmätningar) av olika cancerframkallande ämnen genomfördes i

    sjudygnsperioder. Ökat intresse för de partikulära luftföroreningarnas betydelse

    vid bland annat hjärt-kärlsjuklighet innebar att mätningar av partiklar PM 2,5

    genomfördes stationärt i hemmen under 2 dygn. Parallellt med exponeringsmätningarna

    genomfördes även bakgrundsmätningar av samtliga ämnen vid

    byggnaden där Bergslagens Miljö- och Byggförvaltning är inhysta (Kungsgatan)

    och vid trafikerad gata på Räddningstjänstens tak (Kristinavägen) av samtliga

    ämnen med mätperiod totalt uppgående till fem veckor. Liknande studier i större

    tätorter har tidigare genomförts i Göteborg, Umeå, Stockholm och Malmö.

    Resultaten från undersökningarna i Lindesberg kan sammanfattas i följande tabell:

    Lufthalter för olika ämnen i Lindesbergs kommun hösten 2005

    Ämne Personburna mätningar Bakgrundsmätningar

    μg/m³

    Kristinavägen

    μg/m³

    Kungsgatan

    μg/m³

    Bensen

    1,6 0,4 0,4

    Butadien

    0,5 0,04 0,05

    Formaldehyd

    27 3 2

    Kvävedioxid

    6 10 7

    Partiklar PM 2,5

    9,3 9 9,7

    Vi har inte kunnat konstatera någon säkerställd påverkan på lufthalter av enskilda

    miljöfaktorer eller levnadsmönster. För enskilda individer sågs god korrelation

    mellan lufthalter vid olika mätomgångar. Skillnader i exponering kunde inte

    konstateras då rökvanor eller boendeform jämfördes, för pendlare sågs dock

    skillnader i bensen-, butadien- och kvävedioxidexponering.

    Korrelationen mellan exponeringsmätningar och bakgrundsmätningar var låg för

    samtliga ämnen utom för bensen, motsvarande samvariation mellan olika ämnen i

    enskilt prov erhölls endast för bensen och butadien.

    De uppmätta lufthalterna av olika ämnen i Lindesbergs kommun är väl i nivå med

    de olika nationella och internationella rikt- och gränsvärden som finns antagna.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Lennart
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Husby, Bente
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Arvidsson, Helena
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft Lindesberg 2010/20112010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Naturvårdsverkets programområde

    Hälsorelaterad miljöövervakning

    (HÄMI), delprogram

    Luftförorening – exponeringsstudier ingår personburen

    mätning av vissa cancerframkallande och luftvägsirriterande ämnen i tätortsluft.

    De övriga orter som ingår i projektet är Göteborg, Umeå, Stockholm och Malmö.

    Lindesberg får här representera en

    mindre inlands kommun.

    Mätningarna genomförs för att försöka skatta allmänbefolkningens exponering för

    hälsoskadliga ämnen och samtliga orter har nu genomfört två mätomgångar från

    starten år 2000. De ämnen som ska mätas är bensen, butadien, formaldehyd,

    kvävedioxid, pratiklar PM 2,5 och benso(a)pyren.

    Lindesberg genomför inga egna mätningar av bakgrundshalter och vi har därför

    även vid denna mätomgång valt ut samma två platser som vid föregående mätning.

    Räddningstjänstens tak (Kristinavägen) som representerar en trafikerad central

    gata och Bergslagens Miljö- och Byggförvaltning (Kungsgatan). De uppmätta

    lufthalterna är på samma låga nivåer som vid mätningen år 2005.

    Bakgrundhalterna i Lindesberg är i jämförelse med övriga orter lägre, vilket känns

    troligt då det rör sig om en mindre tätort.

    För de personburna mätningarna är nivåerna lika med eller i vissa fall något högre

    jämfört med de övriga orterna. Det uppmättes några höga bensen- och

    butadienhalter med det beror på en yrkesmässig exponering.

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  • 3.
    Angelstam, Per
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg. Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Analys av skogarna i Dalarnas och Gävleborgs län: Prioriteringsstöd inför områdesskydd2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skogspolitiken innebär att biologiska mångfald ska bevaras, både i from av hållbara produktiva ekosystem och bevarande av livskraftiga populationer av alla förekommande arter. Givet en lång historia av intensivt nyttjande av skogarna för produktion av virke, och en konkurrens mellan arealer för produktion och naturvård, så är det angeläget att utveckla kostnadseffektiva och verksamma tekniker för strategisk och taktisk planering.

    Detta gäller såväl skydd av natur, men även skogsskötsel och återskapande av funktionella ekosystem.

    Som en praktisk tillämpning av utvecklingsarbetet inom forskningsprogrammet ” Fjärranalys för miljö” genomfördes under 2002 en regional bristanalys presenteras sedan en rumslig analys av var trakter av speciellt intresse för bevarande av av olika skogstyper ligger, i vilken grad är de skyddade och om de utgör fungerade nätverk av livsmiljöer för olika artar.

     Inledningsvis presenteras en metodik för regional bristanalys.

    I det andra avsnittet presenterar vi ett angreppssätt för att utvärdera funktionen av de arealer som det enligt den regionala bristanalysen är brist på. Detta baseras på kvalitativa och kvantitativa kunskaper om arter med olika landskapsekologiska krav som är specialiserade på olika skogstyper, och en kartering av olika skogstyper.

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  • 4.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lindh, Christian
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Blood of Highly Exposed People2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the findings of an investigation into the occurrence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the whole blood of people living in the municipality of Ronneby. A total of 20 whole blood samples from individuals who have known to been expose to PFASs via consumption of PFAS contaminated drinking water were analysed in this study. Using both liquid and supercritical chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometers a total of 63 PFASs were analysed. These results were then compared with extractable organofluorine (EOF) levels measured with combustion ion chromatography. The data from both target PFAS analysis and EOF was used to perform fluorine mass balance analysis.

    In general, the PFAS profile was dominated by long-chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs with more than 6 fluorinated carbons), on average accounting for 97% of the total PFAS budget. The second most prominent PFAS class were long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs with more than 7 fluorinated carbons), accounting for an additional 2.6% of the PFAS exposure. The average sum PFAS concentrations was 346 ng/g (from 74.1 ng/g to 715 ng/g). The average EOF concentration was 186 ng F/g and 79% of the EOF was explained by the target analytes.

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  • 5.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Larsson, Maria
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM. 202100-1975.
    Bioanalys av organiska föroreningars biotillgänglighet: - tillämpning i sanerade massor2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAHer) är relativt vanliga i förorenade områden, särskilt på gamla gasverktomter, bensinstationer och tidigare impregneringsanläggningar. På grund av deras toxicitet så är sanering av PAH-förorenade områden av hög prioritet. För att minska riskerna med PAH-förorenade jordar, både före och efter sanering, är det viktigt att åstadkomma en heltäckande riskbedömning och säker klassning av dessa jordmassor. De generella riktvärden för PAH-förorenad mark som används idag är i regel baserade på kemisk analys av 16 standard PAHer (PAH16), trots att det ofta förekommer 100-tals PAHer och PAHmetaboliter i jordarna. I detta projekt har vi genom att jämföra kemisk och biologisk analys (H4IIEluc) av ett flertal sanerade PAH-förorenade jordprover studerat om toxiciteten verkligen minskar i proportion till minskningen av PAHer i jordarna. H4IIE-luc är en mekanismspecifik bioanalys som detekterar alla ämnen som aktiverar Ahreceptorn, en av de två viktigaste mekanismerna bakom PAHers toxicitet. Jämförelsen av resultaten visade att den totala toxiciteten i de sanerade jordproverna inte gick att förklara med kemisk analys av PAH16 och att man därmed med dagens analysmetodik riskerar att missa toxikologiskt relevanta PAHer och andra liknande ämnen. Vidare kemiska identifieringsstudier samt bioanalytiska studier krävs för att ta reda på om dessa okända ämnen utgör en risk för människa eller miljö. Våra resultat visar på svagheten med kemisk analys av ett mindre antal ämnen som grundval för klassning av renade massor. Det är därför är rimligt att inkludera mekanismspecifika tester i riskbedömning och vid klassning av renade PAHförorenade jordar. Dels för att minimera riskerna som dessa jordar kan utgöra för människor och miljö, dels för att man med en större säkerhet och i större utsträckning skall kunna återanvända sanerade jordmassor. 

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  • 6.
    Ericson, Ingrid;,
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Screening av humanvävnad2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    To expand our monitoring focus and to make complementary additions to the POPs traditionally measured we undertook a POP screening study of human tissue representative for Swedish adults in 2007. Among the compounds assessed in this study are several classes of organohalogen contaminants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and their brominated homologues (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other bromine containing compounds, a number of organochlorine Stockholm Convention pesticides including toxaphene, and several recently identified perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). The analytical techniques used were based on various GC and HPLC massspectrometry applications after clean-up and fractionation of blood and adipose tissue samples. The profile of the PCDD/F in 2007 is considered to be unchanged since the 90’s. The shift in congener profile from BDE #47, earlier being the dominant congener in human tissues, to BDE# 153 being dominant is confirmed in this study. Levels of PCBs are lower in this study group in relation to earlier fish consumers’ levels. Six individual PFCs were detected in the blood samples analysed. PFOS was detected at the highest concentration, with a geometric mean of 16 ng/ml, followed by PFOA, 2,4 ng/ml, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA were present at similar levels. There is a need to further investigate individual exposures to PFCs and identify high exposure groups. Brominated PBDFs were found in human adipose at concentrations of 0.27-2.24 pg/g, being the first results on a larger material of the general population in Sweden. The screening of a larger sample seize of human adipose tissue revealed several unknown, bromine containing POPs. Both smaller and larger bromine containing compounds besides the known BDEs were found. Positive identification of these compounds will require authentic standards and high resolution GC/MS analysis.

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  • 7.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

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  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Haglund, Peter
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, teknisk- naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, kemiska institutionen.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution from precursor compounds to the total amount of selected PFASs in water and sludge from Swedish waste water treatment plants, as a supplemental to previous studies of two persistent PFAS-classes; perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Compound classes added in this study were fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs), perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs, PFPiAs), perfluoralkane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs), and also the intermediates fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) and the stable transformation products fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs). Three waste water treatment plants were included; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Umeå. PFAS levels in sludge from 2012. 2014, and 2015, and in filtered effluent and influent water from 2015 are reported. Precursor compounds were detected in sludge and influent water from all three WWTPs. Levels of precursor compounds in sludge samples exceeded those of persistent PFASs. Increasing PFCA levels in the effluent water compared to the influent water was observed, especially for the short-chained PFCAs. Occurrence of precursor compounds in influent water and sludge indicate degradation of precursor compounds to persistent PFASs.

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  • 9.
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    A Pilot Study of the Fluorinated Ingredient of Scotchgard Products and Their Levels in WWTP Sludge and Landfill Leachate from Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study performed by Örebro University on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Agency aims at assessing the occurrence and levels of the newly identified side-chain fluorinated polymers from an environmental perspective. The aims of present study are 1) to develop instrumental and extraction methods to measure the active ingredient of two Scotchgard products (two side-chain fluorinated polymers, hereafter referred to as Pre-2002 and Post-2002) in sludge and leachate samples from Swedish wastewater treatment plants and landfills; 2) to evaluate if Pre-2002 and Post-2002 may be responsible for the unidentified organofluorine in the sludge samples from our previous screening study reporting extractable organofluorine (EOF); and 3) to conduct a mass balance analysis on EOF and sum of 93 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in the sludge and landfill leachate samples to assess the levels of unidentified EOF that potentially are other polymeric or non-polymeric PFAS.

    Levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 and EOF are reported for sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants (Bergkvara in Torsås, Gässlösa in Borås, Henriksdal in Stockholm, and Öhn in Umeå) collected in 2015, and leachate samples from three different landfills (Atleverket in Örebro, Hässleholm Kretsloppscenter in Hässleholm, and Flishult in Vetlanda). Sludge samples from Gässlösa wastewater treatment plant collected between 2004 and 2016 (excluding 2005 and 2006) were analyzed to assess any temporal trends of the two side-chain fluorinated polymers (Pre-2002 and Post-2002). The present investigation reported levels of both Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in all sludge samples (158-2618 ng/g d.w.). Levels of Pre-2002 were always higher than those of Post-2002 in the same samples. A declining trend was observed for Pre-2002 in sludge samples from Gässlösa but no clear trend was noted for Post-2002. The concentrations of the Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in sludge were higher than the sum of 83 PFAS analyzed in the previous screening study. No relationship between number of people that the wastewater treatment plants served and the concentrations of EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 could be observed. The concentrations of both EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 seem to be more related to the types of industry located in that area. Only three of the five leachate samples showed detectable levels of Pre-2002. Post-2002 was not detected in any of the landfill leachates. The low levels could be due to that both compounds are strongly sorbed to particles, which indicates the fate and distribution of these compounds. For both the sludge and leachate samples, the quantified levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 only contributed to a minor part of the EOF. A high proportion of unknown EOF still remains and may be related to other polymeric or non-polar PFAS.

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  • 10.
    Golovko, Oksana
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Yuen, Nim Tung Calista
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Spridning av mikroföroreningar och per- och polyfluoralkyl substanser (PFAS) till jordbruk vid bevattning med kommunalt avloppsvatten2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is one way to reduce the demand for freshwater but it can also introduce pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other chemicals into the agricultural ecosystem and food chain. The aim of this study was to measure a range of potentially harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs), such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, industrial chemicals, pesticides, and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), in wastewater effluent used for irrigation and in the receiving farmland. Four sampling occasions of effluent water at two wastewater treatment plants in Gotland were conducted during July and August 2021. In addition, soil and earthworms were sampled in September 2021 after harvest from two fields irrigated with the monitored wastewater and one field that had not been irrigated that season. Potatoes still in the ground were sampled from one of the irrigated fields.

    A wide range of OMP concentrations (ng/L to ug/L) were found in the effluent water, and in total 35 of 77 analyzed OMPs were detected. A total of 19 out of 24 different PFAS were detected in the effluent samples in the range of 0.1-1000 ng/L. Extractable organofluorine (EOF) and total oxidizable precursors (TOP) were measured in water samples in addition to target PFAS. The range for EOF in effluent samples were 366-507 ng/L and only two samples out of the total eight effluent samples showed a small increase in concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) after oxidation.

    None of the OMPs in this study was detected in any of the soil samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was found over the detection limit in soil from both irrigated fields (0.14-0.17 ng/g d.w.) but was below the detection limit at the reference site. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was found at low levels closely above the detection limit in one of the irrigated fields (0.22 ng/g d.w.) and the nearby reference site (0.27 ng/g d.w.). The EOF analysis of soil did not result in any further information due to an elevated detection limit (280 ng/g d.w.).

    Out of 77 analyzed OMPs, only five OMPs (sotalol, oxazepam, metformin, ethylparaben, and venlafaxine) were found in earthworms in the concentration range 8.4-160 ng/g d.w. Between five and ten PFAS were detected in earthworms from the two irrigated fields (19-35 ng/g d.w. for ΣPFAS) and seven PFAS were found in worms from the reference site with ΣPFAS concentration of 69 ng/g d.w.

    Only two OMP compounds (6.6 ng/g d.w. for metformin and 340 ng/g d.w. for BAM) were found in potatoes collected from one irrigated field, and none of the PFAS could be detected.

    The present study could detect only a few PFAS and other OMPs in soil and potatoes from the land irrigated with wastewater effluent. Bioaccumulation of five OMPs and up to ten PFAS was shown in earthworms at the irrigated farmland but also at the reference site. Thus, this study could not reveal any impact of irrigated wastewater to the soil or earthworm. However, this was a limited study and it cannot be excluded the uptake of OMPs to edible plants or leaching into groundwater.

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  • 11.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    “Screening av PBDD/F i humana matriser”2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a screening study during 2007-2008, also performed by MTM and commissioned by

    the Swedish EPA, the presence of polybrominated dibenzo-

    p furans (PBDFs) were

    detected in human adipose tissue from the Swedish population for the first time. In this

    study ten additional adipose samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-

    p

    dioxins and furans, PBDD/Fs. In all samples, 2,3,7,8-TeBDF was present in levels

    ranging from 0.23 to 0.54 pg g

    -1 lipid and pentabrominated furans were present in nine

    out of ten samples. The levels of 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, 1,2,3,7,8- and 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF were

    similar to those reported in the previous screening study [1].

    By lowering the detection limits by using larger injection volumes by employing the PTV

    injection technique, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-/1,2,3,6,7,8-HxBDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-

    HpBDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF were detected for the first time in

    human adipose tissue samples from Sweden. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD was detected in five out of

    ten samples in the range of 0.03-0.05 pg g

    -1 lipid. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD has been detected in

    samples with human origin earlier but not in samples from Sweden and levels of

    1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDF has previously been detected in human milk samples from several

    countries, including Sweden. However, the detection of 1,2,3,4,7,8-/1,2,3,6,7,8-HxBDD,

    1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF in human tissue is to our knowledge

    reported for the first time.

    To summarize, results from nineteen samples (the present and previous study)

    demonstrate the presence of brominated furans in the general Swedish population.

    Additionally, the individuals having the highest PBDD/F concentrations had also the

    highest levels of PCDD/Fs (pg TEQ g

    -1). This might support the general assumption that

    brominated and chlorinated dioxins have the same sources and exposure routes.

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  • 12.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Lindell, Måns
    Executive, Vattenvårdsförbund.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Ulla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Miljögifter i blod hos högkonsumenter av Vätternfisk2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Blodprover från kvinnliga "Vätternfiskkonsumenter" har bestämts med avseende på halten av polyklorerade bifenyler (PCB), 1,1-diklor-2,2-bis(4-klordifenyl)etylen (DDE), Hexaklorben-sen (HCB), hexaklor cyklohexan (HCH), Polybromerade difenyletrar (PBDE) och kvicksilver (Hg). Gruppen bestod av 37 kvinnor som var fritidsfiskare eller fruar till fritids- eller yrkes-fiskare. Halterna jämfördes med kontroller och förutom analys av blodets halt av miljögifter kartlades också gruppens dietvanor med hjälp av en kostenkät.

    Resultaten visar att halterna av samtliga miljögifter med undantag av HCB var högre hos Vät-ternfiskkonsumenter än i kontrollgrupperna. Halten av PCB 153 (en variant av PCB) låg un-gefär i samma nivå (115-625 ng/g fett) som tidigare rapporterats hos fruar till fiskare på ost-kusten (151-463 ng/g fett) då personer i samma åldersgrupp jämförs (37-59 år). Vid jämförel-ser av medelvärden utan hänsyn till ålder, hade kvinnor som konsumerar fisk från Vättern högre halter (354 ng/g fett) än som har rapporterats i en studie av fruar till fiskare på ostkusten (160 ng/g fett). De höga halterna beror på att flertalet av deltagarna i denna studie är äldre och att blodets halt av PCB, DDE och HCB ökar med stigande ålder.

    Blodets medianhalter av den ingående varianten i flamskyddsmedel, BDE 47 var generellt låg men var något högre bland Vätternfiskkonsumenter jämfört med kontrollen (3,6 respekti-ve 2,9 ng/g fett). Fiskkonsumtion anses enligt tidigare studier vara en viktig orsak till att PBDEs som används som flamskyddsmedel samlas i kroppen.

    Medelvärdet av halten metylkvicksilver hos Vätternfiskkonsumenter var 9,4 μg/l vilket är 3-5 gånger högre än den hos kontrollgrupperna (2,6 μg/l respektive 1,6 μg/l). Förklaringen är sannolikt Vätternfiskkonsumenternas höga konsumtionen av både mager (abborre, gädda) och fet (lax, röding, öring) rovfisk under flera års tid. Samtliga Vätternfiskkonsumenter med halter över 19

    μg/l i blodet åt främst abborre och/eller lax, röding, öring 1-3 gånger vecka. Andra studier har tidigare visat att nervsystemet hos foster kan påverkas om mödrarna har kvicksil-verhalter över 10 μg/l och flera kvinnor i denna studie hade alltså halter som översteg detta värde.

    Även om halterna av främst PCB och metylkvicksilver i blodet hos Vätternfiskkonsumenter är höga är det inte motiverat att avråda äldre personer eller kvinnor som inte tänker skaffa fler barn att äta fet fisk. Tvärtom, nyttan med sådan fisk överväger. Den feta fisken innehåller Omega-3-fettsyror som minskar risken för hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Däremot indikerar fyn-den i denna undersökning att kvinnor i barnafödande ålder ej bör äta stora mängder av framför allt abborre och fet fisk från Vättern.

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  • 13.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Wingren, Gun
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Berglund, Marika
    Executive, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Exponering och kroppsbelastning av PCB och metaller hos befolkningen i ett historiskt kontaminerat samhälleReport (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett förorenat område i Gusum, Valdemarsviks kommun i Östergötland har en epidemiologisk fall

    ‐kontrollstudie genomförts. Omgivningsmätningar i detta område har påvisat förhöjda halter av zink (Zn), koppar (Cu), bly (Pb) och kadmium (Cd) i jord, grönsaker, rotfrukter, bär och svamp. Mätningar i lokalt fångad gädda och abborre har påvisat förhöjda halter av PCB och även kvicksilver.

    Att äta grönsaker, frukt, bär, svamp och fisk från ett förorenat samhälle skulle kunna innebära ökad exponering för miljögifter jämfört med om man inte äter sådana livsmedel. Vid långvarig hög exponering för miljögifter ökar risken för hälsoeffekter. Risken för hälsoeffekter beror på vilka miljöföroreningar man exponeras för, hur mycket man får i sig av de olika ämnena och hur känslig man är som individ.

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka om: a) rapporterad konsumtion av lokala livsmedel samvarierar med uppmätta halter av PCB, bekämpningsmedel, bly, kadmium och kvicksilver i en befolkning boende i ett förorenat område, b) befolkningen i ett förorenat område är högre exponerade än befolkningsgrupper i andra områden, c) exponeringen skiljer sig mellan kvinnor och män, och d) individer med cancerdiagnos, som tidigare identifierats via ett nationellt register, skiljer sig från kontroller med avseende på uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar.

    Individer med cancerdiagnos (n=36) och kontroller (n=59; högkonsumenter och lågkonsumenter av lokala livsmedel) som ingick i den tidigare fall

    ‐kontrollstudien tillfrågades om de ville lämna blod, urin och hår för analys av PCB, bekämpningsmedel, bly, kadmium och kvicksilver samt besvara en enkät om konsumtionsfrekvenser av livsmedel, livsstils‐ och exponeringsfaktorer.

    Faktorer som ålder, kön, rökvanor, yrke och cancerdiagnos utvärderades i relation till konsumtion av lokala livsmedel och uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar i blod, urin och hår. Samband sågs mellan kadmiumhalt i urin och att vara aktiv rökare, konsument av svamp och vegetabilier från Gusum/Ringarums församling, ålder, metallarbete, att ha bott i Gusum i 5 år eller mer och att ha fått en cancerdiagnos. Blyhalt i blod samvarierade med rapporterad konsumtion av viltkött och kvicksilver i hår samvarierade med fiskkonsumtion, både Gusumfisk och annan fisk. PCB samvarierade med ålder, konsumtion av Gusumfisk och strömming, lantbruksarbete och cancerdiagnos. Även halter av bekämpningsmedel samvarierade med lantbruksarbete.

    Generellt hade män högre halt av PCB och bekämpningsmedlen transklordan, transnonaklordan än kvinnor och cancerfallen hade högre halt av PCB och bekämpningsmedlet HCB än kontrollerna. Det förekom ingen skillnad i metallhalt mellan män och kvinnor eller mellan cancerfall och kontroller.

    Resultaten tyder på att konsumtion av svamp och vegetabilier från Gu

    Gusumområdet bidrar till exponeringen för kadmium och att konsumtion av fisk från Gusumområdet bidrar till exponering för PCB och MeHg, men att faktorer som kön, ålder, rökning och yrke spelar stor roll för de uppmätta halterna. Exponering för bekämpningsmedel och kvicksilver kunde inte kopplas till konsumtion av föda från Gusum. Istället är det användning av bekämpningsmedel samt att ha arbetat inom lantbruk som bidrar till exponeringen för bekämpningsmedel och konsumtion av fisk generellt (och inte enbart fisk från Gusum) som bidrar till kvicksilverexponeringen. Uppmätta halter av miljöföroreningar i blod,

    urin och hår uppvisade stor variation mellan studiedeltagarna, men låg i nivå med vad som uppmätts hos andra grupper av befolkningen i samma åldersintervall.

    I den multivariata analysen sågs samvariation mellan cancerdiagnos och PCB i blod respektive kadmium i urin. I den här studien går det inte att uttala sig om orsaken till cancersjuklighet, dels för att provtagningen har utförts långt efter det att personer har fått sin cancerdiagnos, dels för att orsakerna till cancersjukdom oftast är många och till stor del okända. Materialet är också litet vilket

    ökar osäkerheten i analysen. Fortsatta studier av exponering och hälsorisker hos befolkning i kontaminerade områden planeras.

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  • 14.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Holmström, Katrin
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Perfluoroalkylated acids and related compounds (PFAS) in the Swedish environment2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The perfluoroalkylated substances have gained increased attention among scientists and regulators during the last few years. In particular, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and similar perfluorinated alkylated acids are regarded as the most stable end products of various perfluoroalkylated substances and have been shown to be extremely stable, bioconcentrate and biomagnify and have several toxicological effects. The industrial chemistry of perfluoroalkylated substances is extremely diverse and includes almost all chemical functionalities from simple pure alkanes to complex co-polymers. Major usage of perfluoroalkylated products is related to polymeric compounds and the dominant release to the environment is from primary and secondary production plants which are lacking in the Nordic countries. The occurrence of elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkylated acids in Sweden is strongly related to urbanized areas and the most likely path into the aquatic environment is through sewage water, although atmospheric input is also possible via more volatile precursor compounds. Up to 40 times elevated concentrations were found in biota from urban areas compared to unpolluted areas. Lake Mälaren and lower parts of the river Helge å are examples of aqueous environments clearly contaminated by PFOS. One of several potential point sources in Sweden has been screened for PFOS. A firefighting training site was found to release PFOS to the local aqueous environment (wetland) where μg/l concentrations where found. Long chain (more than 8 C for sulfonates and 10 C or more for carboxylates) perfluoroalkylated acids are readily taken up by biota in aqueous environments and reach very high concentrations in predators at high trophic levels of aquatic food webs. Baltic guillemot egg showed an increasing trend in PFOS concentration from 20-30 ng/g by the end of sixties to more than 600 ng/g at present. Freshwater otter from various locations in Sweden showed concentrations similar to guillemot eggs and Baltic grey seal has extreme values up to ten times higher (21 μg/g sum of all acids 6-14 C, PFOS alone:11μg/g). Human exposure, as described by Swedish human blood levels, appears to be similar to most other countries. No extreme values were encountered which would indicate occupational exposure. An excessive consumption of freshwater fish may contribute to an increased exposure, but this could not be clearly verified. Occupational settings where exposure to precursor compounds can take place are present in Sweden and should be included in future studies. Industrial use of textile and leather impregnating formulations result in elevated concentrations of perfluorocarboylates in effluent water from sewage treatment plants. The relation between effluent and biota concentrations for an aquatic environment with this type of activity needs to be further described in particular for perfluoroalkyl carboxylates which are currently being discharged in Sweden. Exposure routes and distribution behavior are yet not completely described for many PFAS, in particular their precursors. Environmental levels, human levels and human exposure data are lacking for a wide variety of PFAS discussed in this report

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  • 15.
    Karlsson, Therese
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Sven Lovén centrum för marina vetenskaper.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Rotander, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Sven Lovén centrum för marina vetenskaper.
    Provtagningsmetoder för mikroplast >300 μm i ytvatten: En jämförelsestudie mellan pump och trål2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling and analyzing microplastics (MPs) comes with a unique set of challenges and currently a wide variety of methods are developed and applied. In order to facilitate future environmental monitoring we compared two methods that are often used for sampling MPs >300 μm; a manta trawl and a filtering pump. Six replicates per method were taken during calm weather conditions in the same location on the same day. The volume per replicate was 20 m3 for the pump and approximately 60 m3 for the trawl. Following analysis was done with visual sorting in a stereo microscope. The same person analyzed all samples and the anthropogenic particles were divided into eleven classification categories.

    In the pump samples zero to eight MPs were found per sample, rendering an arithmetic mean of 0.17 MPs/m3. In the trawl samples the numbers varied between 9 and 33 MPs, which corresponded to a significantly higher concentration per volume than the pump with an arithmetic mean of 0.32 MPs/m3. The results also indicated that in order to reach a statistical power of 60%, ten pump replicates would be needed to measure a difference between the examined area and an uncontaminated area. For the trawl a corresponding number of two replicates would be required. Alternatively a higher sample volume can be applied, which would render a higher certainty as the distribution data would approach a Gaussian distribution. A higher sampling volume would also lower the measurement uncertainty as it would decrease fluctuations in the counting statistics. Variations in measurement uncertainty between the methods was hypothesized to be primarily related to the differences in sample volume and could also be compensated through increasing the volume sampled, which would be somewhat faster than increasing the amount of replicates.

    The composition of MPs in the study varied between the replicates but mainly consisted of expanded cellular plastics, films, filaments and fragments. Each pump sample had on average 1.3 films and 0.33 expanded cellular plastics whereas each trawl sample had on average 2.5 films and 9.2 expanded cellular plastics. Per unit of volume the majority of the particles in the pump samples (40%) consisted of films, whereas the particles in the trawl predominantly consisted of expanded cellular plastics (46%). Expanded cellular plastics therefore seem to be sampled more efficiently by trawls, which could be because they float on top of the surface, the pump samples a bit lower in the surface water and the results in this study show that the sample compositions were more comparable for particles with more neutral buoyancy. Not enough particles were however obtained to allow for a more in-depth analysis of the compositional differences.

    The probability of false null-values increase with a lower true value of numbers of particles per sample and this starts to have a significantly negative effect below five particles per sample. Regardless of which method that is used it is therefore crucial to sample a sufficient number of particles (volume times concentration) suitable for comparing spatial, temporal or compositional differences.

    Background and purpose of the report

    Even if methods for sampling, extraction and identification of microplastics have developed rapidly during recent years several challenges remain. One of the challenges that remain is how to sample a group of contaminants that is as heterogeneous, both concerning shape and distribution, as microplastics. Additionally it is important to know to what extent results from different types of sampling devices can be compared. Here we compare two methods that are often used to sample microplastics above 300 μm in surface waters; a manta trawl and a pump. During one day (10th of October 2017) six replicates per sampling method was taken in the same spot in Gullmarsfjorden outside Lysekil. Through counting microplastics and other types of microlitter in the samples the aim was to compare differences between replicates and methods.

    This study was commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, as a step in the work to develop monitoring of microlitter.

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  • 16.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Davies, Jenna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Aune, Marie
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    PFAAs in matched milk and serum from primipara women2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to assess the association between serum and milk levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans. Individual milk and serum samples from fifty (50) primipara women in Uppsala, Sweden, were collected in 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2011. PFAAs were analysed in milk and serum using in-house validated methods and quality control protocols. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were detected in 98-100% of the milk and serum samples in the concentration order PFOS>PFHxS>PFOA. PFBuS, PFHpA, and PFDA were detected in 12-64% of the milk and serum samples. PFNA and PFUnDA were detected at high frequency but low levels in serum and were consequently less frequently detected in milk. PFOS and PFHxS showed a stronger correlation between serum and milk levels compared to PFOA. The regression slope with 95% confidence interval was calculated to assess the association between serum and milk levels. The level of PFOS in milk is 1.4 ± 0.25% of the corresponding maternal serum level. For PFHxS the interval is 1.4 ± 0.33% and for PFOA 2.6 ± 1.1%. The temporal trends (2004-2011) observed are similar in serum and milk.

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  • 17.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Analysis and Occurrence of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Breast Milk and Serum from Swedish Women, 1996-20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk samples and blood serum collected from primipara women in Sweden during the period 1996 to 2004 were analyzed with the aim to study levels of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and the concentration ratio between milk and blood. A total of five perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were detected in breast milk, of which perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were found most frequently. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected. The highest mean concentration in individual milk samples was obtained for PFOS (0.172 ng/mL) followed by PFHxS (0.068 ng/mL) and PFOSA (0.012 ng/mL). The quantification of PFOA was hampered in most of the samples due to a high procedural blank contamination. A total of eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples. Breast milk levels in this study were on average 113 times lower compared to serum levels for PFOS, 57 times lower for PFHxS and 23 times lower for PFOSA. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS and PFHxS. During the period 1996-2004, the levels in pooled breast milk samples were relatively constant with a slightly decreasing trend for the pools collected in years 2003-2004. Analysis of breast milk, consecutive sampled over a period of several days, did not indicate a decrease in levels with progression of lactation.

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  • 18.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    “Mätningar av PFOS i bröstmjölk och blod”2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk samples and blood serum collected from primipara women in Sweden during the

    period 1996 to 2004 were analyzed with the aim to study levels of perfluorinated chemicals

    (PFCs) and the concentration ratio between milk and blood.

    A total of five perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were detected in breast milk, of which

    perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were found most

    frequently. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorononanoic acid

    (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected. The highest mean concentration in

    individual milk samples was obtained for PFOS (0.172 ng/mL) followed by PFHxS (0.068

    ng/mL) and PFOSA (0.012 ng/mL). The quantification of PFOA was hampered in most of the

    samples due to a high procedural blank contamination. A total of eight PFCs were detected in

    the serum samples.

    Breast milk levels in this study were on average 113 times lower compared to serum levels for

    PFOS, 57 times lower for PFHxS and 23 times lower for PFOSA. There was a strong

    association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for

    PFOS and PFHxS.

    During the period 1996-2004, the levels in pooled breast milk samples were relatively

    constant with a slightly decreasing trend for the pools collected in years 2003-2004.

    Analysis of breast milk, consecutive sampled over a period of several days, did not indicate a

    decrease in levels with progression of lactation.

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  • 19.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    N.T. Yuen, Calista
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    W.Y. Yeung, Leo
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Screening of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sediment and water close to paper industries2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is a large group of anthropogenic compounds that is widely used, for example to manufacture grease- and water-repellent paper. Several PFAS have been found to pose a risk to the environment and humans due to their persistency, mobility, toxicity and bioaccumulative potential. Paper production in Sweden covers widely different products such as cardboard, liquid cardboard, writing paper, sack paper, hygiene paper (tissue), etc. In addition, there are also numerous closed paper industries. Current and historical use of PFAS in paper industries in Sweden and consequent emissions to the environment are not known. The purpose of this study was to assess if paper industries could be an important point source for PFAS in the environment by analysis of PFAS in sediment and water taken nearby paper industries. In total, 60 sediment samples from 13 sites in Sweden sampled during the time period 2015-2022, and eight surface water samples from three sites taken in 2021, were included in the study. A total of 68 non-polymer PFAS and extractable organofluorine (EOF) was targeted. The results from the screening study shows a wide range of the sum target PFAS-68, between below limit of detection (LOD) to 1181 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) in sediments close to paper industries in Sweden. The number and type of PFAS detected also varied. The PFAS-classes found in highest concentration in surface sediments were polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAP) (maximum 819 ng/g d.w.), fluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA) (maximum 137 ng/g d.w.), and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethyl phosphate diester (diSAmPAP) (maximum 134 ng/g d.w.). DiSAmPAP was only semi-quantified due to poor separation of structural isomers and interferences from the sediment matrix. A general increase in concentrations with increasing sediment depth could be seen for the contaminated sites, and the maximum concentration in sediments of different depths reached 1084 ng/g d.w. for diPAP, 65 ng/g d.w. for FOSAA, and 682 ng/g d.w. for diSAmPAP. The commonly measured classes of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSA) reached a maximum of 6 and 7 ng/g d.w. in surface sediments, and 11 and 6 ng/g d.w. in sediment cores, respectively. The EOF levels followed the same trend as target PFAS concentrations, with a few exceptions, and ranged between <LOD to 1301 ng/g d.w.. Surface water from three sites showed detectable concentrations of PFCA, PFSA och FTSA up to 0.05 ng/mL, but the occurrence could not be connected to the paper industries. Based on the target results of surface sediments, five out of the 13 sites can be classified as low contaminated (sum target PFAS-68 <20 ng/g d.w.) and the remaining eight sites are clearly affected by a PFAS point source.

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  • 20.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood andplasma from the Swedish population2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of five perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFOSA and

    PFNA were determined in whole blood and plasma from 47 males and 36 females

    representing the Swedish population. The analytical method developed and used includes

    solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray masspectrometry. PFOS was

    the PFA found at the highest concentration in whole blood (18.2 pg/ul) followed by PFOSA

    (4.1 pg/μl), PFOA (2.7 pg/μl), PFHxS (2.3 pg/μl) and PFNA (0.3 pg/μl). Besides the five

    compounds determined, we were able to detect PFHxA, PFDA, PFDS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA

    and PFTDA in some of the samples/at low concentrations, the only compound included in this

    study that we did not detect was PFBuS. This shows that the Swedish population are exposed

    for a large number of PFAs. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA correspond to those

    found in USA. The correlation between PFOS and the other compounds was studied in order

    to find out if there is a common source of exposure. Only a very week correlation between

    PFOS and PFOA could be seen.

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  • 21.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Ericson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hardell, Karin
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in relation to high fish consumption, part 3: 2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual levels of 33 PCBs (#28, #52, #47/48, #74, #66, #101, #99/113, #110, #118,

    #114/122, #105, #153, #138, #128/167, #156, #157, # 178, #182/187, #183, #174, #177,

    #172/192, #180/193, #170/190, #189, #202, # 194, #199, #196/203, #195, # 208, #207,

    #206), HCB, oxychlordane,

    p,p’-DDE and PBDE #47 were determined in 141 plasma

    samples (0.5-3 ml) from Swedish females with documented high consumption of fish.

    The analytical method used includes solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high resolution

    mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS EI SIM).

    Concentrations reported are given in pg/ml plasma and in ng/g plasma lipid (ppb). Lipid

    contents were determined enzymatically. For the sum of the 33 PCBs the average level,

    on lipid basis, was 340 ppb (range 1979-61 ppb), for PCB 153 the average was 81 ppb

    (range 460-13 ppb), HCB 41 ppb (range 143-12 ppb), oxychlordane 2.3 ppb (range 27-

    0.06), p,p-DDE 131 ppb (range 1114-7.3 ppb) and PBDE #47 had an average level of 2.5

    ppb (range 25-0.4 ppb). A reference sample confirms the method performance to have a

    SD of 13% for the total PCB.

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  • 22.
    Malmgren, Jan
    et al.
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Örebro län.
    Gustafson, Daniel
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Journath Pettersson, Cecilia
    Rygne, Helena
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Örebro län.
    Grandin, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Undersökningstyp: Inventering och övervakning av större vattensalamander (Triturus cristatus)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den större vattensalamandern, Triturus cristatus, förekommer i Sverige i hela Göta- och Svealand utom på Gotland, samt sparsamt längs Norrlands kustland. Man finner arten främst i öppna kulturpräglade landskap men även i rena skogslandskap. Landhabitaten ska helst vara mogna skogsbestånd med lång kontinuitet och ha en komplex markstruktur som ger god tillgång till gömslen och platser för födosök. Tidigt på våren lämnar djuren sin övervintrings-plats på land för att söka sig till sin lekdamm. Under lekperioden är arten främst knuten till fiskfria, väl solexponerade småvatten med riklig vegetation. I skogslandskapet kan man dock finna arten i ganska sura och nästan helt vegetationslösa skogstjärnar och myrgölar. Vatten med alltför låga pH-värden tycks generellt undvikas. Då artens larver har en lång utvecklings-period bör vattensamlingen även vara permanent eller åtminstone hålla vatten under perioden mars-april till oktober-november. Kännedomen om artens förekomst och utbredning är fortfarande dålig i stora delar av landet, men man kan anta att den minskar i antal. Hoten mot större vattensalamander är främst landskapsförändringar av olika slag som påverkar dess land- och vattenhabitat. För långsiktigt livskraftiga populationer krävs dessutom att det finns fler populationer inom ett begränsat område med gynnsamma spridningsvägar emellan, s.k. metapopulationer. Detta är något som blivit sällsynt i många av våra landskap då det småskaliga mosaiklandskapet har fått ge vika för storskaligt jord- och skogsbruk. Dessutom är skogar med lång kontinuitet sällsynta och granplantering samt igenväxning på tidigare åker-, ängs- och betesmark har haft en skuggande och ibland försurande effekt på många småvatten. Utdikning, dränering och inplantering av fisk där fisk tidigare saknats är andra faktorer som bidragit till att småvatten lämpliga för större vattensalamander har isolerats eller förstörts. Större vattensalamander är rödlistad (klass NT/Missgynnad) i Sverige, EU och IUCN samt fridlyst i Sverige. Eftersom arten är upptagen i EU:s habitatdirektiv (92/43/EEG) och Bernkonventionens appendix II är alla länder inom EU förbundna att bevara inte bara arten, utan också dess habitat. I Sverige regleras artens skydd av Artskyddsförordningen (SFS 1998:179). För mer information om den större vattensalamanderns biologi och status, se Malmgren (2002) och Gustafson & Malmgren (2002).

  • 23.
    Persson, Josefin
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Wang, Thanh
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    A survey of organic flame retardants and plasticizers in building materials on the Swedish market and their occurrence in indoor environments2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Man-made and industrial organic chemicals are ubiquitous in the indoor environments due to their frequent usage in building materials, interior decorations and consumer products. These chemicals are classified as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) depending on their physical characteristics such as boiling points and vapor pressures. The VOCs are mostly released to the indoor environment via volatilization processes, whereas the emission mechanisms of SVOCs is a more complex mix of volatilization, abrasion and/or direct transfer to other contact materials or skin. Exposure to certain SVOCs has been linked to adverse human health effects such as allergies, chronic asthma, endocrine disruption and neurodevelopmental issues. The aim of this report was to investigate two groups of SVOCs that are frequently used as additives in building materials; organic flame retardants (FRs) and plasticizers. A literature search was performed in order to identify currently used FRs and plasticizers as well as some new alternatives, which totaled to almost 300 compounds. These were further investigated for their presence in building materials available on the Swedish market with the help of two building material assessment databases SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen. In all, around 2 500 building materials in the two databases were identified to contain the listed FRs and plasticizers. Plasticizers were frequently used in adhesives, jointing mastics, paints and indoor flooring while FRs were frequently used in different lighting articles, fireproof paints and jointing mastics. Interestingly, more than half of the FRs and plasticizers in our list were not registered in the material databases. This could be owing to the absence or low usage of these compounds in building materials in Sweden.

    There is currently still a lack of knowledge on the chemical content in building materials and their emission characteristics to the indoor environment and the potential exposure risks to occupants. Future work such as combining field emission tests of building materials with indoor air and dust sampling in the same room is recommended to fill some of the knowledge gaps. Another strategy is to conduct suspect screening chemical analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry on representative indoor matrices such as dust, and link detected compounds to specific chemical additives found in different building products. The database which was established within this survey could then be useful for this purpose.

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  • 24.
    Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Wang, Thanh
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Awad, Raed
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Benskin, Jonathan
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    POPs, PFAS and metals in ringed seals (Pusa hispida botnica) from the Baltic 1978-20152019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty two pooled samples from 69 juvenile ringed seals collected between 1974 and 2015 were analyzed for PCB (22 congeners), pesticides, PFAS, metals and selenium. Most seals were bycaught in fishing gear.

     

    All CB congeners were above the detection limits. CB-138 and -153 accounted for ca 50% of ∑PCB. CB-180 and -101 stood for ca 10 % each. ∑PCB decreased over the study period with approximately -4.6% annually and since 2000 the mean concentrations (i.e. in pooled samples) were below 9 mg/kg in these juvenile seals, which is the lowest suggested threshold for onset of physiological effects in experimental marine mammal studies.

    sDDT decreased with a rate of ca -8.9% yearly. The proportion of p,p’DDE increased over time as p,p’DDT decreased. Chlordanes and nonachlor also decreased over time (-4.6%). Trans-nonachlor was the most predominating compound. Finally, mirex decreased over time at a rate of approximately -2.3% annually.

     

    Nine PBDE congeners were analyzed in blubber. The predominating BDE was BDE-47 (ca 70%) followed by BDE-99 and BDE-100. Most BDE congeners peaked during the 1990s.

     

    Eleven perfluorinated substances were analysed. PFHxA and PFHpA were below detection limits in all but three samples not included in the statistical analyses. All but FOSA showed increasing trends over the study period, with increasing rates of +5-9% annually. However, if only looking at the last 15 years the concentrations appear stable (i.e. not increasing or decreasing). FOSA showed decreasing rates over the full period as well as the last 15 years. PFOS was observed in the highest concentrations (range 9.4-400 ng/g ww) and was the predominant PFAS. PFNA was the predominant PFCA followed by PFDA and PFUnDA.

     

    Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were analysed in seal liver. Cr was below detection limit in all samples but one, which was at detection limit. Ni was below detection limit in all samples. Only Co showed slight decreasing concentrations, the concentrations of the other metals were stable over time. However, concentrations of Pb were very low, and after 2000 below detection limit (<0.03 mg/kg ww), indicating decreasing concentrations. The relationship Hg vs Se on a molar basis showed no trend over time. Generally, the ratio was slightly below 1, but in five samples it did exceeded 1 (mean ratio was 0.9).

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  • 25.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Hjulström, Nathalie
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Monitoring microplastics in Örebro, Sweden – Characterization of stormwater and wastewater2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three to five replicate samples of surface water and treated wastewater were processed at seven locations in Örebro between September and November 2019. The levels of microplastics >300 µm, excluding fibers, in surface water varied between 0 - 15 MP/m' (0-10 µg/L), and 32-159 Mp/m' (2-20 µg/L) in treated wastewater. Örebro city contributed with more than 90% to the microplastics discharged into lake Hjälmaren via Svartån. Precipitation and flow varied <luring the sampling period, and high recordings were associated with both high and low concentrations of microplastics depending on the sampling location. Calculations of the yearly load of microplastics from treated wastewater and stormwater indicated that the STP contributed with up to four times more to the total load. However, it was recognized that the uncertainty in the data was high and that more samples were needed for a more solid conclusion.

     Visual characterization was performed to obtain a detailed level of classification to aid in identifying source contributions of microplastics. However, the relatively low number of microplastics, in combination with variations in levels and types of microplastics between the replicate samples, made it difficult to appoint and quantify sources. Primary microplastics in different colours and in the shape of spheres made up 4%, and non­spherical semitransparent primary microplastics made up 44%, of the total number of MP particles from the STP. Films made up a larger part of microplastics in stormwater recipients compared to in effluent from the STP, which were attributed to littering being an important source of this microplastic type. Artificial turfs were estimated to contribute with 3-7 % of the microplastics in stormwater in the form of green polyethylene straws. 

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  • 26.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Microplastics in Södertälje: From Lake Mälaren to the Baltic Sea2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    3

    Svensk sammanfattning

    Trots att ett ökat antal studier de senaste åren slagit fast att betydande mängder mikroplaster kontinuerligt släpps ut i den marina miljön så finns det en utbredd okunskap vad gäller vilka källor som bidrar mest. Det finns således ett behov av att identifiera och karakterisera punktkällor för utsläpp av mikroplaster.

    Den här studien har genomförts i Södertälje och prover har tagits uppströms Södertälje i Mälaren och nedströms till Östersjön. Området är förutom befolkningen påverkat av olika typer av industrier. Södertäljeviken är väldefinierad och har få tillflöden förutom från avrinning från staden och industriområden. Syftet med studien är att studera källor och spridning av mikroplaster till havet genom att analysera hur Södertäljeområdet påverkar förekomst och typ av mikroplaster i ytvatten och sediment.

    Ytvatten provtogs i nio stycken lokaler i Södertäljeviken, inklusive två tillflöden, vid två tillfällen under hösten 2017. Vid sex av dessa lokaler och vid ett tillfälle togs även sedimentkärnor. Ytvatten provtags med en pump som sorterade in partiklarna i två fraktioner: >300 μm och 50-300 μm. Halterna mikroskräppartiklar (mikroplast, fibrer och övriga antropogena partiklar) var i samtliga ytvattenprover högre i 50-300 μm fraktionen med skillnader som varierade mellan ca en faktor 5 och faktor 160. Halterna mikroplaster >300 μm i ytvatten varierade mellan 0.1 och 1 partiklar/m3. Det relativt låga antalet mikroplaster i kombination med variationer mellan de två tidpunkterna i halter försvårar slutsatserna om punktkällor.

    De vanligaste polymererna visade sig vara polyeten och polypropen baserat på analys med infraröd spektroskopi. Hälften av partiklarna som testades kunde dock inte tillskrivas en polymertyp och hamnade i kategorin "oidentifierad polymer". Ett karakteristiskt format rött fragment återfanns i flera av ytvattenproverna och sedimentproverna och var sannolikt färgflagor efter t.ex. bottenfärg.

    Halterna i ytvatten är jämförbara med studier från Östersjön, Gullmarsfjorden och Nyköpingsåarna (Nyköpingsån, Kilaån, Svärtaån och Trosaån) men lägre jämfört med ytvatten i Göteborg (Mölndalsån, Kvillebäcken, Säveån, Lärjeån och Stora ån).

    Halten mikroplast i ytvatten ökade inte nämnvärt från bakgrundsnivån i referenspunkten i Mälaren till början av Södertäljeviken (Snäckviken) med industrier, båttrafik osv. samt till centrala Södertälje (Maren) där Mälaren möter Östersjön. Nedströms centrum kunde en viss ökning av ytvattenhalten urskiljas i lokalen Igelstaviken med sina större industrier och Södertälje hamn. Halten mikroplast minskade sedan nedströms och ut i Östersjön. Detta överensstämde med sedimentproverna, dock kan man i ytsedimentet se en ökning redan i Snäckviken.

    Resultaten tyder på att det finns punktkällor kopplade till lokalerna Igelstaviken och Torpaviken men deras betydelse för det totala utsläppet av MP från land är inte fastlagd. Både båttrafik, industrier, och värmeverk finns kopplade till lokalerna. Inga kända plasttillverkare finns i områdena och det bör därför utredas hur mycket mikroplast som släpps ut från övrig tillverkningsindustri. Sedimentresultaten visar på gradienter med ökande halt i Södertäljeviken fram till Igelsta och därefter en gradvis minskande halt nedströms. Halten mikroplast i sediment är högre i bakgrundslokalen i Östersjön jämfört med bakgrundslokalen i Mälaren vilket tyder på en påverkan från Södertälje. Fler sedimentprov behöver analyseras för att säkerställa skillnaden då variationen av mikroplast i sediment inte är känd.

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  • 27.
    Sandström, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet. 202100-1975.
    Bibliometric evaluation of SEPA-funded large research programs 2003–20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001–2002 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) initiated an investment in larger research programs, funded over periods of six years. This report evaluates, with emphasis on bibliometric methods, seven of the programs established in the final phase of this initiative. The programs started around 2003–2004, in one case a bit later, and ended around and after 2010.Initially, it can be stated that one of the program’s primary effect has been to allow for more than 30 young scientists to contribute to the expansive research area with their dissertations. A number of these PhDs will in due time move to other activities in companies and government agencies and at the same time society’s absorptive capacity for new knowledge in the environmental field will be expanded and transformed.This main message of this report concerns the publication production and citation performance of researchers within the above mentioned seven research programs. Papers published by more than 100 researchers are compared with papers published by their international colleagues during the same time period and in the same areas of science. The analysis primarily focuses on those scientific papers the researchers themselves have reported as a result of program-related activities. In addition, analyses have been carried out based on (1) all publications from all program members in the Web of Science database, and (2) on all team member publications similarly indexed in Google Scholar. These latter two studies provide results which basically indicate lower performances than the analysis based on self-reported publications.It is worth noting that remarkably few of the publications specifically mentioned the SEPA as financier in the respective “funding acknowledgements” in the articles.Concerning publication productivity, i.e. production of papers in relation to Nordic reference values, the SEPA funded programs exhibit an activity at levels that would be expected by researchers in these areas. This implicates that the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is likely to have received results in parity with the resources invested.With respect to the relative citation performance, the outcome was even better, about 50 per cent above international reference levels. Therefore, the impression is generally very good but the evaluation points out that three out of seven programs have weak impact.Concerning the grading of each programme based on self-reported publications: One of the research programs achieved levels equivalent to the highest rating, i.e. Outstanding. Another program reached the level of Excellent. Two programs had a citation score that corresponds to the grade Very Goodand two programs were rated as Good. Finally, one program with low level of activity, did not achieve satisfactory levels, i.e. Insufficient.

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  • 28.
    Thanh, Wang
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Linköpings universitet, LiU. Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Ayan Au, Musse
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Literature survey on the environmental contamination of liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) and a pilot study on their occurrence in sewage sludge from Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are currently the predominant display technology in the market and utilized in various devices from small calculators to large flat-screen TVs. Liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) are essential components of LCDs and have been produced at a large scale since the 1980s. Concerns have arisen about the potential environmental release of LCMs, with recent studies detecting their presence in indoor dust, sediments, soils and even in humans. The large number of LCMs and their structural diversity poses challenges in chemical analysis. Furthermore, there are discrepancies in acronyms between different studies, which emphasize the need for a standardized nomenclature for reporting LCMs. Experimental data on physical-chemical properties, atmospheric lifetimes, and bioaccumulation potential highlight the potential persistent organic pollutant characteristics of many LCMs. LCMs can be released to the environment during manufacturing, product use, and recycling processes. Environmental monitoring of LCMs is in its early stages, with limited data available. Studies have reported LCM presence in indoor dust, outdoor environments, soil, sediment and biota, primarily from China. Human exposure has been suggested through occupational settings and there have been positive correlations between LCM levels in indoor dust and human breast milk. However, more studies are needed from other countries to assess whether LCMs have widespread global contamination. Within this current report, a pilot study was conducted with the aim to investigate occurrence of selected LCMs in sewage sludge. However, challenges during analytical method development with the sample extraction and pretreatment steps led to low recoveries of native LCMs, indicating the need for further method optimization. A clear conclusion can therefore not be made whether LCMs are present or not in Swedish sludge.

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  • 29.
    Wang, Thanh
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Dubocq, Florian
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Identification of organic contaminants in indoor dust by comprehensive target, suspect and nontarget screening analysis2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I norra Europa tillbringar vi mer än 90% av vår tid i olika inomhusmiljöer och kemikalier som avges från byggmaterial och produkter kan vara viktiga exponeringsvägar för människor som vistas i dessa miljöer. Många industriella kemikalier används som tillsatser och dessa är vanligtvis inte kemiskt bundna till materialet och kan därför avges i inomhusmiljön över tid eller under användning. Inomhusdamm har påvisats vara en bra indikator för polära och icke-polära organiska föroreningar i inomhusmiljön. I denna studie insamlades damm på ytor från olika inomhusmiljöer såsom bostäder, kontor, förskolor, tryckeri, möbelaffär och elektronikbutik. De insamlade inomhusdammproverna extraherades med ultraljudsextraktion utan provupprening för att minimera förlust av ämnen under provberedningsproceduren. Extraktet delades upp och analyserades med både vätskekromatograf kopplad till högupplösande masspektrometer (LC-HRMS) och gaskromatograf kopplad till HRMS (GC-HRMS). En omfattande analystrategi med riktad analys av ett antal förvalda ämnen, en så kallad suspect screening och förutsättningslös analys genomfördes, vilket resulterade i detektion av mer än 260 ämnen i inomhusdamm. Dessa inkluderar kemikalier som används som flamskyddsmedel, mjukgörare, flytkristallmonomerer (liquid crystal monomers, LCMs), aktiva ingredienser i läkemedel och personvårdsprodukter, desinfektionsmedel, färgämnen, högfluorerade ämnen, UV-stabilisatorer, bekämpningsmedel, doftämnen och växtmetaboliter. Potentiella riskerna som är förknippade med inomhusdammsexponering av många av dessa kemikalierna samt kombinationseffekter är inte välkända. Majoriteten av den kemiska sammansättningen i inomhusdammproverna är fortfaranade inte klarlagt och många häsloskadliga föroreningar som kan finnas i proven kan fortfarande inte identifieras. Studier rekommenderas för att identifera fler ämnen genom förbättrade analysmetoder eller förfina identifieringsflöden genom att till exempel utöka så kallade suspect list med fler högkvalitativa HRMS-spektra av ämnen som ännu inte finns tillgängliga.

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  • 30.
    Yeung, Leo
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

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  • 31.
    Yeung, Leo
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

    Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

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