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Omanalys av flamskyddsmedel i svenska vattendrag
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
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2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Re-analysis of organic flame retardants in Swedish rivers (English)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här studien var att få en ögonblicksbild av halterna av flamskyddsmedel i svenska vattendrag. Provtagningen ägde rum i oktober 2013, och resultaten från den provtagningen har rapporterats tidigare (Ahrens et al. 2014). Analysmetodiken har sedan dess förbättrats och det beslutades därför att provextrakten från den tidigare studien skulle analyseras på nytt. Resultaten från omanalysen presenteras i denna rapport.

Totalt analyserades 61 flamskyddmedel i denna studie. Det högsta antalet ämnen detekterades i Nyköpingsån (22) och Indalsälven (16). De mest frekvent förekommande ämnena var ΣTDCIPP/TEHP (kvantifierade som en totalhalt tillsammans) som detekterades i alla 25 proverna från norr till söder, följt av TCEP (detekterad i 15 prover) och TBBPA (detekterad i 11 prover). Högst sammanlagd koncentration av flamskyddsmedel uppmättes i Nyköpingsån (240 ng L-1), Fyrisån (230 ng L-1) och Indalsälven (140 ng L-1). Generellt var koncentrationerna av flamskyddsmedel högre i södra Sverige än i norra vilket sannolikt kan förklaras av den högre populationstätheten i söder. Den dagliga tillförseln av flamskyddsmedel från vattendragen till Östersjön uppskattades. Indalsälven och Nyköpingsån uppvisade de högsta värdena med 5,2 och 4,9 kg/dag. Båda dessa vattendrag hade en likartad fördelning av flamskyddsmedel med TEBP-Anh (~30% av ΣFRs), TCBPA (~23% av ΣFRs) och TBBPA (~30% av ΣFRs) som dominerande ämnen. Detta indikerar att det främst är dessa tre flamskyddsmedel som transporteras till Östersjön via svenska vattendrag.

Eftersom denna studie ger en ögonblicksbild av mängden flamskyddsmedel i svenska vattendrag måste resultaten tolkas med försiktighet. Denna typ av studie är dock användbar för att få en generell uppfattning om föroreningsnivåer och för att upptäcka platser med förhöjd förorening, s.k. hot-spots. För att få en bättre insikt i föroreningssituationen krävs ytterligare studier med en annan provtagningsstrategi, t.ex. provtagning under längre tidsperioder (och under olika årstider) och mer frekvent provtagning alternativt tids- /flödesproportionell provtagning.

Abstract [en]

Flame retardants (FRs) are used in everyday products such as furniture and electronics to provide fire protection. The intensive use of FRs has led to their wide spread in the environment. Many chemicals have been found to have bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties which have led to a ban of some of these FR compounds based on international agreements. For example, Penta- and octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have been included in the Stockholm Convention. However, most FRs are not restricted, and in many cases it is not known to which extent they are used or to which degree they are polluting the environment. The aim of this study was to provide a snapshot of the current FR pollution in Swedish rivers and streams. In total, 25 rivers and streams were sampled along the east coast of Sweden from north to south. The sampling was done in October 2013 and results from this pre-study were presented previously (Ahrens et al. 2014). Since then, the analytical method for FRs has been improved, and here we report on the re-analysis of the extracts from the previous study.

In total 61 (including 7 PBDEs, 35 AFRs, 19 OPFRs), mainly novel FRs, were included in the analytical method. The highest number of FRs was detected in Nyköpingsån (22) and Indalsälven (16). The most frequently detected FRs were Σtris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate/tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate) (ΣTDCIPP/TEHP, quantified as the sum of both) detected in all 25 samples from north to south, followed by tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (detected in 15 samples) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) (detected in 11 samples). The highest FR concentrations were observed in Nyköpingsån, Fyrisån and Indalsälven with ΣFR concentrations of 240, 230 and 140 ng L-1, respectively. It is evident that FR concentrations in general are higher in the south than in the north, likely explained by the higher population density in the south. Daily loads of ΣFRs transported from Swedish rivers into the Baltic Sea were estimated to be in total 15 kg/day. Indalsälven and Nyköpingsån showed highest total daily loads with 5.2 and 4.9 kg/day, respectively. The composition profiles of these two rivers showed a similar pattern with 3,4,5,6-Tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TEBP-Anh, ~30% of the ΣFR), Tetrachlorobisphenol-A (TCBPA, ~23% of the ΣFR) and TBBPA (~30% of the ΣFR) as the major FRs indicating that these are the three main FRs transported into the Baltic Sea from Swedish rivers.

Since this study only provides a snapshot of current conditions, care needs to be taken in the interpretation of the results. This type of screening study is, however, useful for getting a general idea on pollution levels and revealing of tentative hot spots. For better insight into the pollution situation, another sampling strategy is neded, e.g. covering longer time periods (and different seasons) and using more frequent sampling or time/flow-proportional sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU) , 2016. , 39 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Finance, National; Miljöövervakningens programområden, Freshwater; Miljöövervakningens programområden, Coast and sea; Environmental Objectives, Flourishing Lakes and Streams; Environmental Objectives, A Non-Toxic Environment; Environmental Objectives, A Balanced Marine Environ­ment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:naturvardsverket:diva-6609OAI: oai:DiVA.org:naturvardsverket-6609DiVA: diva2:938907
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-06-17

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