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Replacement substances for the brominated flame retardants PBDE, HBCDD, and TBBPA
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Myndigheter, Kemi.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Responsible organisation
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Ersättningsämnen för de bromerade flamskyddsmedlen PBDE, HBCDD och TBBPA (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

 

A literature and database review was conducted with the aim of identifying new alternative flame retardants (FRs) used as replacement chemicals for the traditionally used polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and also for tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). Firstly, selected patents from the US patent database were studied and a number of alternative FRs could be identified, including, e.g., pentaerythritol, melamine, and bis-(t-butylphenyl) phenyl phosphate. Secondly, two databases, containing quantity information on usage from Sweden and the EU, were searched to obtain usage data. In Sweden, the FR that is used in the highest quantities is pentaerythritol, followed by e.g., short-chained chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and tetrabromobisphenol-A-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA-BDBPE). In the EU, pentaerythritol and melamine are used in the highest quantities, followed by e.g., SCCPs, MCCPs, 1,2-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenyl)ethane (DBDPE), and triethyl phosphate (TEP). From the Swedish database, exposure indices were obtained, indicating the potential of exposure for different environmental compartments to different FRs. The highest average potential of exposure was found for pentaerythritol, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), SCCPs, and tritolyl phosphate (TMPP). In addition, time trends in the potential of exposure were obtained from the database and showed increasing trends for TBBPA-BDBPE, tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate (TTBNPP), DBDPE, Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), TMPP, and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP). Thirdly, the open literature (including international peer-reviewed articles and reports from environmental authorities), was reviewed in search for previously reported environmental concentrations of emerging FRs in indoor dust, indoor and outdoor air, water, sediment, sludge, soil, atmospheric deposition, plants and animals including humans. In total, 66 different FRs were detected in at least one of the studied matrices. In addition, six prioritization lists were identified, which included about 50 different FRs that were suggested to be of high environmental relevance. Finally, to be able to prioritize between the identified FRs for future screenings, a multicriteria model was developed based on (i) usage, (ii) time trends in the potential of exposure, (iii) environmental detection, and (iv) previous publication lists. From this multicriteria model, the top ten FRs were: TBBPA-BDBPE, DBDPE, BTBPE, TTBNPP, bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), ethylene bis-tetrabromo phtalimide (EBTEBPI), PBDPP, para-TMPP, TPHP, and tri(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP). These FRs are suggested to be prioritized in future screenings.

Abstract [sv]

En litteratur- och databasstudie genomfördes med syfte att identifiera nya flamskyddsmedel, dvs. ämnen som används som ersättningskemikalier för polybromerade difenyletrar (PBDEs), hexabromocyklododekan (HBCDD) samt tetrabromobisfenol-A (TBBPA). Först studerades utvalda patent från den amerikanska patentdatabasen, där ett antal nya flamskyddsmedel kunde identifieras, bl.a. pentaerytritol, melamin och bis-(t-butylfenyl)fenylfosfat. Därefter granskades den öppna litteraturen (inklusive internationellt publicerade vetenskapliga artiklar och rapporter från olika miljömyndigheter) för att finna tidigare rapporterade koncentrationer av nya flamskyddsmedel i inomhusdamm, inom- och utomhusluft, vatten, sediment, slam, jord, atmosfärisk deposition, växter, djur samt människor. Genom denna granskning identifierades 66 nya flamskyddsmedel som detekterats i minst en av de studerade matriserna. Vi identifierade sex listor över prioriterade ämnen i den genomsökta litteraturen. Dessa listor innehöll ca 50 nya flamskyddsmedel som anses ha hög miljömässig relevans. Information om förbrukningsmängder av olika flamskyddsmedel i Sverige och Europeiska unionen (EU) hämtades från två olika databaser (Registered substances from the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and the Swedish product register from the Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI)). I Sverige är pentaerytritol det flamskyddsmedel som används i störst mängd, följt av bl.a. kortkedjade klorerade paraffiner (SCCPs), 2-etylhexyldifenylfosfat (EHDPP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromofenoxy)- etan (BTBPE) och tetrabromobisfenol-A-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)eter (TBBPA-BDBPE). I EU används pentaerytritol samt melamin i högst kvantiteter, följt av bl.a. kort- och mediumkedjade klorerade paraffiner, 1,2-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromofenyl)etan (DBDPE) och trietylfosfat (TEP). Från den svenska databasen erhölls också exponeringsindex som ger en indikation av risken för exponering (för ytvatten, luft, jord, avloppsreningsverk, konsument, samt vid yrkesmässig hantering) för de olika flamskyddsmedlen. De flamskyddsmedel som generellt utgör den högsta exponeringsrisken konstaterades vara pentaerytritol, tributylfosfat (TNBP), trifenylfosfat (TPHP), SCCPs och tritolylfosfat (TMPP). Från den svenska databasen var det dessutom möjligt att få fram information om tidstrender i risken för exponering. Ökande risk identifierades för TBBPA-BDBPE, tris(tribromoneopentyl)fosfat (TTBNPP), DBDPE, resorcinolbis-(difenylfosfat) (PBDPP), TMPP och cresyldifenylfosfat (CDP). Slutligen, för att kunna prioritera mellan de identifierade flamskyddsmedlen, utvecklades en multikriterimodell baserad på (i) användningsdata, (ii) tidstrender i risken för exponering. (iii) detekterbarhet i miljön och (iv) publicerade prioriteringslistor. De tio högst rankade flamskyddsmedlen från denna modell var TBBPA-BDBPE, DBDPE, BTBPE, TTBNPP, bis(2-etyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromoftalat (BEH-TEBP), etylenbis-tetrabromoftalimid (EBTEBPI), PBDPP, para-TMPP, TPHP, and tri(1-kloro-2-propyl)fosfat (TCIPP). Dessa flamskyddsmedel föreslås bli prioriterade i framtida miljöövervakningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: IVM, SLU , 2017. , 126 p.
Keyword [sv]
Flamskyddsmedel
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Miljöövervakning, Toxic; Toxic, Screening; Environmental Objectives, A Non-Toxic Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:naturvardsverket:diva-7144OAI: oai:DiVA.org:naturvardsverket-7144DiVA: diva2:1133654
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-16

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Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesKemi
Environmental Sciences

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