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  • Jönsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Ekosystemtjänstperspektivet i kommunernas plan- och beslutsprocesser2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    NÅGRA SLUTSATSER FRÅN PROJEKTET

    • Implementeringen av ekosystemtjänstansatsen bör ses som ett led i kommunernas långsiktiga strategiska arbete med klimatanpassning och hållbar stadsutveckling.

    • Det är viktigt att tydliggöra att planerare kanske redan arbetar utifrån en EST-ansats, även om inte själva EST-begreppet används.

    • Tidigare erfarenhet från miljö- och naturvårdsarbete hos planerare underlättar införandet och förståelsen av EST-begreppet.

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  • Rylander, Lars
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Lindh, Christian
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Tidstrender av PFAS-nivåer i serum hos gravida kvinnor2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högfluorerade ämnen, eller per- och polyfluorerade alkylsyror (PFAS) är mycket stabila ämnen som pga av sina vatten- och fettavvisande egenskaper har många användningsområden. Syftet med den aktuella studien var att studera tidstrender av PFAS under perioden 1995-2014 hos gravida kvinnor.

    Studien inkluderade 1208 kvinnor i södra Sverige från vilka serumprover samlades in i tidig graviditet. I serumproverna analyserades koncentrationen av fyra olika PFAS, nämligen PFOS (perfluoroktansulfonat), PFOA (perfluoroktansyra), PFNA (perfluornonansyra) och PFHxS (perfluorhexasulfonat).

    De högsta koncentrationerna och den största minskningen (ca 9% per kalenderår) över tid observerades för PFOS där ca 33% av variationen förklarades av kalenderår. Även PFOA och PFHxS minskade (2,3-3,5% per kalenderår) under studieperioden medan PFNA ökade.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien klara minskningar över tiden av vissa PFAS, men ämnena har lång halveringstid i människa vilket innebär att halterna minskar långsamt och kommer att finnas kvar i kroppen under lång tid. Dessutom är ämnena stabila ute i naturen så människorna kommer fortsatt att exponeras för dem. Vidare är det så att vissa PFAS har förbjudits såsom PFOS vilket fått till följd att nya ämnen som PFNA vilka ersatt dessa ökade under studieperioden.

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  • Miljö- och klimatsamarbete med strategiska länder: Årsrapport 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s environmental challenges are, to a very large extend, transboundary and cannot be solved only within the borders of Sweden.

    The major emerging national economies of Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa (BRIICS) have extensive manufacturing industries that provide products to both the domestic and global market. These populous countries have a major impact on global resource use and environmental performance, and are therefore key players in global environmental and climate cooperation. Developing relationships with strategic countries is also positive in terms of industry, export trade, foreign and security policy.

    In this annual report, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presents cooperation carried out by four government agencies in 2016 under a government fund for bilateral cooperation with strategic countries in the field of environment and climate.

    The fund, in 2016 amounted to 15 M SEK , is allocated from the international cooperation budget designated to support the cooperation with countries which have a major impact on the global environment or have strategic importance to the global environment and climate. Four Swedish government agencies are involved to carry out this bilateral cooperation: the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, the Swedish Chemicals Agency, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI).

    This bilateral cooperation focus on capacity development at various levels:

    • an enabling environment, e.g. a regulatory frameworks and rule of law

    • the organizational level

    • the individual level

    An example of such an effort is the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's cooperation with the Indian organization Center for Science and Environment. Together with the county administration of Västra Götaland the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has during the year conducted training of environmental officials from various states of India. The training focuses on good governance and management principles, licensing and supervision of the industry and good examples from various industry sectors, waste management, wastewater treatment and sustainable urban development.

    Collaborations can be linked to many of the Swedish environmental objectives, Agenda 2030 and multilateral environment agreement. Various topics in the bilateral cooperation’s are chemicals, climate, air, water and biodiversity. The presentation of this annual report is both divided by topic and country.

    Chemicals

    In 2013 the Brazilian Ministry of Environment together with the Swedish Chemicals Agency developed a plan which targeted to develop modern chemicals legislation. This became in 2016 a reality in the form of a bill that has been out for public consultation. The Swedish Chemicals Agency also conducts cooperation with South Africa, Indonesia, China, Vietnam and Uruguay focusing on legislation and on dialogue on chemicals conventions.

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency together with the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) in South Africa has been planning a project focusing on hazardous waste as is the case of an ongoing project in Curitiba Brazil.

    In Russia the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's project on best available technology (BAT), support for the Barents Council Subgroup on Hot Spots Exclusion and effort on waste prevention and landfill reduction links to the Swedish Environmental Quality Objective a Non-Toxic Environment. Another example of efforts in the chemicals sector is the work of Sweden as chair of the Arctic Contaminants Action Program (ACAP) expert group on persistent organic pollutants and mercury, which conducted five meetings during the year.

    Climate and air pollution

    Many activities include the area climate and air pollution. SMHI has collaborated with the city Curitiba in Brazil, local and regional environmental authorities and universities in the project ParCur, where parties are developing a method to determine the emissions of particles and their impact on the city's air quality. In Curitiba the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency conducted workshops on sustainable waste management and participated in an additional workshop on climate change and sustainable urban development.

    By the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s organization of a seminar in Moscow and a workshop in Stockholm, Sweden both shared their experiences and gained insight into Russia's overall climate policy. These efforts also gave a further insight in how the regulation of industrial emissions is planned and how the industry itself reflects on the issue. Within the cooperation in the Barents Euro- Arctic Council the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been supporting the implementation of the Barents climate action plan.

    The workshops conducted with municipal officials in Chile will result in draft municipal waste management plans, a project led by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and largely funded by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). In accordance with the Paris Agreement and Montreal Protocol to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCSs) the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency organized a workshop in Stockholm to initiate cooperation with China aimed at promoting an elimination of HFCSs and energy efficiency through district cooling systems.

    Marine and water

    Due to the fact that upstream water flow influences the environment downstream a comprehensive management from source to sea is required. The concept “Source to Sea” is based on the activity of water flow which interconnects and influences different geographic segments from the source to the sea. A comprehensive management from "source to sea" is therefore an important approach to achieve the 17 sustainable goals, particularly Goal 6 and 14. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management contribute to capacity building and experience on issues relating to the integrated management, from source to sea in dialogue with Brazil, Russia, China, South Africa, Vietnam, the United States. Under the cooperation with Russia the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management participated in the Baltic Sea Days, the meeting of the Joint Committee for Swedish Russian environmental cooperation and conducted a workshop on marine planning. Another example is the cooperation in the framework China Europe Water Platform (CEWP) that has gained momentum during the year.

    An example from SMHI is their work for effective water allocation with the support of modeled source distribution and scenario tools, which they conducted in South Africa. Two researchers have been trained to master the so called HYPEmodel so that it can be used as required.

    Biodiversity

    The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management work regarding “Source to Sea” and marine planning includes issues on biodiversity. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s cooperation with Russian has a direct impact on protection of species within Swedish biodiversity. In this cooperation experiences are shared regarding the management of the wolf population which genetically can enhance the Swedish wolf population.

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    Working with Multilateral Environmental Agreements in bilateral cooperation provides support to countries in achieving the commitments they have made and gives arguments to the Environmental institution in the country about the value of working with the environment as well as suggestions on how the country can work with the environment. Bilateral cooperation is a good platform for Sweden to gain knowledge about a country and gives opportunities to share Sweden’s position which may facilitate negotiations. Our activities in partner countries are directly linked to, among others, the Climate Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Helsinki Convention, the Stockholm Convention, the Basel Convention, the Minamata Convention and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM).

    Contribution to the Swedish export strategy

    Bilateral cooperation is generally based on a question that includes different technical solutions. Agencies for examples arrange study visits for the cooperation partner to various facilities. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is part of Team Sweden, which is a network of agencies and companies who are all working to promote Swedish exports abroad and contribute indirectly to the promotion of Swedish companies' export opportunities and the implementation of the government's export strategy.

    International cooperation is crucial to achieve most of the environmental quality objectives and Agenda 2030. The bilateral envelope gives authorities the possibility to form a valuable collaboration during which they with relatively small funds can make contributions that will be important and is of strategic significance. The bilateral programs enable us to maintain the good relations as well as develop cooperation with strategic countries in the field of environment and climate.

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  • Lundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Assarsson, Eva
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Broberg, Karin
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Tidstrender för bly, kadmium och kvicksilver: – en uppdatering 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Exponering för låga halter av bly, kadmium och kvicksilver kan ge skador på nervsystemet, benskörhet, ökad risk för frakturer samt hjärtkärlsjukdom. På uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket har vi genomfört en studie med syfte att kartlägga tidstrender för dessa metaller i blod hos barn i Landskrona. Vi har även analyserat antimon i urin.

    Mellan åren 2013 och 2019 togs det blodprov på cirka 100 unika barn per år. Åren 2017 och 2019 kompletterades provtagningen med ett urinprov för att mäta antimon. Halterna av bly i blod har sjunkit mellan 2013 och 2017 till 7,8 μg/L (geometriskt medelvärde) men inte ytterligare år 2019. Kadmiumhalten i blod var relativt konstant - runt 0,09 μg/L - under 2013-2019. Halterna av kvicksilver i blod sjönk 2015 och 2017 men ökade 2019 till 1,3 μg/L. Halterna av antimon i urin var låga - mestadels under detektionsgränsen 0,05 μg/L - både 2017 och 2019.

    Jämfört med andra delar av Europa är halten av bly i barnen från Landskrona ungefär lika hög men på en nivå som kan ge effekter på kognitiva funktioner. Halten av kadmium är låg i jämförelse men ändå på en nivå som kan tänkas leda till toxiska effekter på lång sikt. Kvicksilverhalten är jämförelsevis högre men inte på en nivå som kan förväntas ge toxiska effekter. De uppmätta halterna av antimon i urin är låga. Bidraget av antimon från barnens konsumtion av dryck från PET-flaskor är liten.

    Resultaten tyder på att minskningen av bly-halter i blod har avtagit, kadmium-halterna är oförändrade och att kvicksilver-halterna i blod eventuellt ökar. Fortsatt uppföljning av halterna av metallerna bly, kadmium och kvicksilver hos barn i Landskrona rekommenderas.

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