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  • Örn, Stefan
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fernström, Lise-Lotte
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Frosth, Sara
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Screening of faecal bacteria and antibiotic resistance in urban wastewater and recipient river surface water2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One major source of faecal bacteria and antibiotics to surface waters are effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) which highlights the importance of efficient sewage treatment for reduction of microorganisms as well as chemicals. In the present study a broad and exploratory screening survey was conducted on water and, fish and caged mussels samples from the sewage treatment plant and the recipient river Fyrisån in Uppsala, Sweden, during the years 2017-2019. The aim was to study the impact of STP effluent discharge on the river water microbial quality measured through the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. as fecal indicator bacteria, antibiotic resistance by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli (ESBL-E. coli), potentially pathogenic bacteria Salmonella spp., as well as presence and levels of antibiotics.

    In the STP, large reductions of faecal bacteria from influent to effluent sewage water (>90%) was measured, but less reduction was observed for the antibiotics (66%). Measurement of ESBL-E. coli in the STP sewage water revealed increased ratio of ESBL-E. coli isolates in the STP effluent compared with influent samples indicating potential selection for antibiotic resistance during the sewage process. Recipient river water samples revealed increased faecal bacteria and resistant ESBL-E. coli concentrations several kilometers downstream the STP outlet. Salmonella spp were isolated from all samples of STP influent and effluent water and at some sites in the river. Screening of wild fish and caged mussels in the river show that animals in the recipient environment to STPs can be carriers of faecal bacteria and ESBL-E. coli. This highlights the potential risk for transmissions of pathogens and antibiotic resistance from both the water and aquatic animals inhabiting microbial polluted environments.

    Large variations in concentrations of bacteria as well as antibiotics were observed between the years, which were probably due to annual differences in river discharge flow, indicating that prevailing weather conditions influence the levels of bacteria and antibiotics in the river. Generally, the resistance pattern to the 14 different tested antibiotics were similar in ESBL-E. coli isolated from the STP influent and effluent, river and biota samples. Apart from ampicillin and cefotaxime which were used for selection of ESBL-E. coli, high resistances were detected also for ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. Large proportions of the isolated ESBL-E. coli were also multidrug-resistant, i.e. resistant to at least three different antibiotic classes.

    The present study show that the Uppsala STP serves as a major source for faecal bacteria, ESBL-E. coli and antibiotics to surface water of the river Fyrisån, which can remain at considerable levels for several kilometers downstream the outlet.

  • Stenmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Ecocom AB.
    Stenström, Anna
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Västra Götalands län.
    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar och pollinatörer.: Analys 2010-2018.2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar och pollinatörer har utförts på 126 platser. I genomsnitt påträffades 30±15 arter gaddsteklar på en plats med metoden färgskålar och 11±6,7 arter av blombesökare under en pollinatörsslinga.

  • Förlin, Lars
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, biologi och miljövetenskap.
    Sundelin, Brita
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Magnusson, Marina
    Executive, Företag, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    Executive, Företag, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, biologi och miljövetenskap.
    Larsson, Åke
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, biologi och miljövetenskap.
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Franzén, Fredrik
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effektscreening – Biologisk effektövervakning i förorenade områden längs Sveriges kust 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningarna visar att samtliga metoder inklusive undersökningar av hälsotillståndet hos fisk, fortplantning och biomarkörer hos vitmärla, lysosomal membranstabilitet hos mussla och imposex hos snäckor med få undantag visade på tydliga effekter i de åtta undersökta och förorenade områdena längs Sveriges kuster. En jämförelse mellan de olika metoderna visar, med undantag för området i Uddevalla/Byfjorden, en tydlig påverkan i resterande undersökta områdena. I Byfjorden noterades mindre stressade musslor och endast låga stadier av imposex hos snäckor medan fiskhälsan kunde konstateras vara påverkad. Utöver Byfjorden gjordes undersökningar med mer än en av metoderna även i Sundsvallsfjärden, Norrsundet, Bråviken, Ronnebyåns mynning och Landskrona. I dessa områden visar jämförelsen mellan metoderna att samtliga indikerar en tydlig påverkan. Att samtliga metoder ger utslag beror sannolikt på att alla valda undersökningsområden har en mycket komplex och ganska påtaglig föroreningsbelastning vilket innebär att det kan förväntas att de flesta organismer som lever i dessa områden kan uppvisa effekter som kan härledas till påverkan av miljöstörande ämnen.

    I Sverige är den nationella effektbaserade miljöövervakningen i marin miljö väsentligen inriktad på att undersöka effekter av miljögifter i referensområden. Sådana områden karakteriseras av att de ska ligga på stort avstånd från större befolkningscentra och industrier, eller till exempel inte ligga nära stora flodmynningar. Resultaten från denna studie kompletterar den ordinarie miljöövervakningen i referensområden och visar med stor tydlighet att de undersökta områdena är källor för miljöstörande ämnen till vattenmiljön. Undersökningarna visar också att det är önskvärt att kontinuerlig biologisk effektövervakning kommer igång i något eller några påverkade områden inom ramen för den nationella miljöövervakningen för att parallellt följa förändringar i miljön nära eller en bit från påtagliga, mer eller mindre kontinuerliga föroreningskällor i vårt samhälle. Detta skulle också komplettera Sveriges internationella rapportering av miljödata genom att förutom att rapportera effektdata från referensområden även kunna rapportera data från påverkade/förorenade områden.

  • Herzog, Axel
    et al.
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Maxe, Lena
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Mätning av miljögifter i grundvatten2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (NV), the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) conducted a screening of environmental pollutants. The purpose was to increase knowledge about the distribution of pollutants in groundwater and thereby be able to create a basis for assessing how monitoring in groundwater needs to develop in the future.

    18 counties participated in the survey. A total of 220 samples were taken at 188 sites. The selection of the sample sites and sampling was handled by the county administrative boards with support from SGU. The selection was made using 4 different criteria (sample classes):

    1. groundwater bodies that are considered to be at risk of not achieving good status in VISS 2. groundwater bodies in connection with landfills 3. groundwater sources affected by urban environment 4. groundwater sources near PFAS source where no PFAS measurements have been previously reported.

    The following substance groups were analyzed: Pesticides, PFAS, halogenated aliphates and BTEX, pharmaceuticals, PAHs, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, tin-organic compounds and four other substances. Like the previous screening from 2017 focusing on the urban environment, the pesticide groups, PFAS, halogenated aliphates and BTEX were the most frequently detected. Pharmaceuticals were detected to a lesser extent. Phthalates, 1,4-dioxane and other substances were detected on very few occasions, mainly at sites linked to sample class 2; groundwater bodies in connection to landfills.

    According to this study, the substance groups PAHs and pesticides occur often, but show in most cases unproblematic levels. 1,4-dioxane was detected only on 2 sites. 1,4-dioxan may, however, be of importance at local levels.

  • Ejhed, Katarina
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lind, Ewa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nguyen, Minh
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållén, Joakim
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hellgren, Stefan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Belastning och påverkan från dagvatten: Källor till föroreningar i dagvatten, potentiell effekt, och jämförelser med belastning från andra källor2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMED performed this project on pollution and load from stormwater on commission by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Stormwater is rain water, melting water and surface water runoff generated in urban areas and on national roads. The purpose of this project was to compile the load of pollutants in stormwater to water recipients. Primary sources, potential toxic and endocrine disrupter effects and load on the aquatic environment have been compiled and calculated from a selection of priority substances, comprising a total of 22 nutrients, metals and organic pollutants. These substances were selected because they are known substances in stormwater and priority substances of the Water Authorities and substances for which it was possible to calculate the load. These 22 substances have such adverse effects in the aquatic environment that the load of all of these substances should be limited or completely prevented. The toxicity of stormwater has been compiled based on available literature. However, the studies are few and of varying content, which makes it difficult to draw any general conclusions regarding the effects of stormwater.

    The number of pollutants in stormwater may however be much larger. Measured concentrations in stormwater collected from the Swedish EPAs Screening Database show that of totally 300 substances 74 are detected in all samples of stormwater in which they have been analyzed and another 117 substances are present in some of the stormwater samples. Substances than often occurred in stormwater include metals, some dioxins and furans, alkylphenols, antioxidants, pesticides, hydrocarbons, LAS (Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) and flame retardants.

    The results of the load calculations show that stormwater is a significant pathway to the recipients of certain substances, even though the urban area is less than 1% of Sweden's total area. For cadmium, zinc, lead and copper, the contribution from stormwater has been estimated to be between 15% and 17% of the total load in Sweden and can be regarded as significant load. In between 451 and 1090 individual water bodies, the load from stormwater is the dominant source pathway (> 50% of total load) to the different metals. Stormwater accounts for 100% of the load in 17 water bodies for copper, zinc and lead, in 12 water bodies for cadmium and nickel and in 3 water bodies for mercury. For the organic substances, the data on emissions are very uncertain or lacking entirely for many sources in Sweden, e.g the leachate from different soil types, agricultural land and forests, but the available data and calculations indicate that stormwater is an important pathway for PAH16, DEHP, nonylphenol, HCH, TBT, PBDE, PFOS and PCB7 to water recipients.

    Very significant contributions (> 25%) to the load in stormwater within urban areas come from land used for industry, trading site, gravel and sandpit, port and landfill activities for all metals, nonylphenol (58%), PFOS (54% ), PAH16 (40%), HCH (23%), PCB7 (23%), PBDE (22%) and octylphenol (18%). Industry and trading site is the largest area within the land use class and should be prioritized in the ongoing work. Industry and trading sites have high type concentrations and high runoff coefficients that cause the high load. The load in the stormwater of the phthalate DEHP, however, comes from areas of "single house, very green area" (35%), "residential area, less green area" (29%) and "urban green area, sports facility, airfield grass" (25%). The land use class "single house, very green area" constitutes the largest area in total in urban areas in Sweden (35% of the area), which means that the surface contributes with a general load.

    There are major uncertainties in the results, due to the lack of monitoring of substances in stormwater. The calculations in this report are based on land use compiled by SMED to HELCOM Pollution Load Compilation (PLC7) reporting, type concentration and runoff coefficients in urban areas from the Stormtac database as well as reported emissions in environmental reports from sewage treatment plants and industries in the Swedish Environmental Reporting Portal. Especially for organic substances, data is lacking, making these estimates more uncertain. Development of the environmental monitoring of metals and organic substances is needed in order to follow trends and to prioritize among measures at the upstream source and through water treatment.

    Despite the uncertainties, the large number of substances that have been detected in stormwater and the estimated significant contributions from stormwater to the total load, indicates that the environmental problems with stormwater can be extensive.

  • Ejhed, Helene
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lind, Ewa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rosenblom, Tove
    Statistiska Centralbyrån, SCB.
    Tengdelius Brunell, Johanna
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Beräkning av utsläpp av läkemedelsrester från kommunala avloppsreningsverk och potentiell koncentration i recipientvatten2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMED has performed this project on commission by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The project included calculations of potential load of diclofenac, 17-β-estradiol (estradiol) and 17-αetinylestradiol (etinylestradiol) from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) >2000 persons equivalents (PE) on Swedish subcatchments (version SMHIs SVAR_2016) and  estimated potential concentration of the three pharmaceutical residues in freshwater recipients subcatchments.

    The results in the report are based entirely on calculations, as measurements of the concentration of pharmaceutical residues in effluent and in recipients are available only for a few wastewater treatment plants at the present time. Measurements must be done to provide more certainty before deciding on any need for measures. This report provides a basis for prioritizing which wastewater treatment plants should be further investigated through measurements.

    The calculations were based on available official sales information (for diclofenac on county level, for estradiol and etinylestradiol on country level), number of connected person equivalents (pe) to each wastewater treatment plant, reported volume of water flow from each wastewater treatment plant, water flow in each subcatchment which is the recipient of wastewater and literature data on treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plants. The same treatment efficiency was assumed for all wastewater treatment plants due to lack of data. The treatment efficiency was based on literature review including nearly 70 titles, of which 17 were complete enough to contribute with data to this report. The overall calculated median value of removal efficiency was used to represent all WWTPs (diclofenac 17%, estradiol 90%  and ethinylestradiol 84%)  due to the lack of monitoring data. The following calculations did not account for local differences in load into the WWTPs or the removal efficiency of single WWTPs, but only the number of PE connected to each WWTP and the water flow in each effluent freshwater recipient catchment. There are large observed differences in measured  concentrations, both between samples from each WWTP and between WWTPs, thus it is important to perform actual measurements to verify the calculated results in this report.

    The results in this report shows that the WWTPs with the largest number of PE, thus have the largest load of pharmaceuticals in the influent and the effluent wastewater (kg/year). These are Ryaverket (Gothenburg), Henriksdal (Stocholm), Käppalaverket (Stockholm) and Sjölunda WWTP (Malmö). The effects of the load from the largest WWTPs in the coast should be further investigated through sampling and monitoring in the future.

    The results further shows that of the WWTPs with highest effluent concentrations, almost all of them are situated in areas well-known for tourist recreation; Tandådalen, Ransby-Branäs, Björnrike, Kläppen, Sälfjället, Böda och Vimmerby. Difference in the calculated concentration in effluent wastewater between different wastewater treatment plants depends largely on the number of connected people in relation to volume of effluent flow. The wastewater treatment plants in the tourist areas thus have the largest number of people connected in relation to the volume of effluent flow. The tourist areas further have a large variation in the number of people connected depending on the season, but the flow is due both to the volume of sewage from persons and to other water that is loaded on the wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is another important reason to carry out measurements of the concentration in effluents and in recipients during different seasons. Seasonal variations have not been calculated in the report due to lack of data.

    56 subcatchments regarding diclofenac, 12 regarding estradiol and 24 regarding ethinylestradiol shows higher calculated concentration in the freshwater catchments than the annual average environmental quality standards for substances of special concern in freshwater. To confirm or discard these results, sampling and actual monitoring is needed in these subcatchments.

  • Nerentorp, Michelle
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Atmospheric concentrations of organophosphates: At background stations in Sweden (Råö, Norunda) and Finland (Pallas)2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a group of chemicals that have been used for more than a century. OPEs are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers, anti-foaming agents and as additives in lubricants and hydraulic fluids. The results of a screening assessment carried out by Umeå University in 2004 showed that OPEs can be found in for example air, deposition and snow, both near and far from emission sources. That the atmosphere is an important route of transportation for these substances has also been shown in later studies showing that several OPEs occur in Arctic air and biota. However, they have never been part of the regular environmental air monitoring program in Sweden.

    The aim of this study was to get an idea of the levels of OPEs in background air and the importance of air transportation of these chemicals in Sweden and northern Finland. Sample extracts from the regular environmental monitoring program of organic pollutants in air were used for the analyses and the results were evaluated in order to propose future measurement programs. The measured OPEs were TEP, TiBP, TnBP, TCEP, TCPP, TDCP, TBEP, TEHP, TPhP, EHDPP, ToCrP and TCrP mix. TCEP, TCPP and EHDPP were measured in the highest concentrations. Unfortunately, TPhP and TCrP mix were excluded from the results due to the detection of contamination from the polyurethane plugs used as adsorbents.

    To get an idea of the regional distribution, air samples were taken from the three stations, Råö at the Swedish west coast, Norunda at the east of Sweden and Pallas in northern Finland. Generally, the highest levels of OPEs were measured in Pallas and the lowest in Norunda. For TCEP and EHDPP, a geographical variation could be distinguished with highest concentrations in the north and lowest in the south. To get information about seasonal variations, sample extracts for the OPE-analyses were taken from the ordinary measurements for one year (2018), from January to December. Seasonal variations were observed for TCPP and TCEP at Råö, where higher levels were measured during the summer. In Pallas, the highest concentrations of some OPEs were instead detected in late summer. The measurements at Norunda did not show any clear seasonal variations.

    The results of the measurements in this study were compared with literature data, which showed good agreement levels as well as similar relationships among different OPEs. Production figures of different OPEs were difficult to find. Although, TEP, which is reported to be produced in large quantities, was not detected in high concentrations in air at any of the stations.

    Based on the results of this study, we conclude that the existing network of measurement stations, monitoring frequency, sampling and analysis procedures used within the environmental monitoring, can be used to measure organophosphates in air as well. However, the material used for the PUF adsorbent and the extraction method should be further evaluated to ensure the quality of the measurements.

  • Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Jasmin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Viktor, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fång, Johan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rodenticide screening 2016–2018 Exposures in birds (raptors and gulls) and red foxes2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rodenticides are biocidal products that are used in order to control rats and mice. This screening study aims at investigating whether chemical substances belonging to the group anticoagulant rodenticides can be detected in Swedish non-target biota, and to investigate if the levels are different compared with the results from a previous study.

    The levels of anticoagulant rodenticides detected in the present screening study are similar to those found in earlier studies in Sweden and elsewhere. The literature indicates that toxic effects can occur in birds at levels > 100 ng/g (liver) whereas the level > 200 ng/g has been proposed to be a threshold level in foxes. Some individuals of raptors (n =2) and several foxes (n = 7) exceed these levels in the present study. These data suggest that anticoagulant rodenticides that are transferred in the food web may cause secondary toxicity in non-target mammals and birds in Sweden. However, no pathology has been performed for the individuals of the present study that can confirm any concentration-effect relationship or reason for mortality.