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  • Lindström, Bodil
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gönczi, Mikaela
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nationell screening av bekämpningsmedel i åar i jordbruksområden 2016: Uppföljning av 2015 års undersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller resultaten från 2016 års uppföljning av den screeningundersökning av bekämp-ningsmedelsrester i jordbruksintensiva områden i Sverige som genomfördes 2015. Syftet var dels att undersöka mellanårsvariationer och dels att studera variationerna under säsongen genom tätare prov-tagning.

    I de nio vattendrag som ingick i den nationella provtagningen togs totalt 87 prov. Därutöver togs 38 prov på 11 provplatser inom den regionala förtätningen. Proven analyserades för 133 substanser.

    Under 2015 och 2016 påträffades 65 respektive 73 substanser, varav 61 påträffades båda åren. Av dessa hade ca hälften en högre fyndfrekvens under 2016 jämfört med 2015 och för en fjärdedel av substanserna var fyndfrekvensen lägre under 2016 jämfört med 2015, för resterande var fyndfrekvensen lika mellan åren. Generellt påträffades ett större antal substanser per prov under 2016 jämfört med 2015. För summahalterna var det små skillnader mellan åren, men för ett fåtal prover var summahalter-na betydligt högre under 2016. Proven från 2016 hade fler riktvärdesöverskridanden, både räknat som antalet substanser och som andel av prov med överskridande, jämfört med 2015. De extra proverna som förtätade 2016 års provtagning visade överlag liknande antal substanser och summahalter som de andra proverna tagna före eller efter extraproven.

    Det förekom flest substanser och högst summahalter per prov i Skåne, följt av Halland, Västra Götaland och Östergötland, medan Västmanland och Gotland hade färre fynd och lägst summahalter.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Methodology for calculating emissions from ships: 1. Update of emission factors2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMED (Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, a collaboration between the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Statistics Sweden and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) has derived emission factors for ships (> 100 Gross Register Tonnage) to be applied in Sweden’s international reporting duties. The basis for this type of reporting is that only emissions derived from Swedish sold marine fuels are accounted for.

    The study has focused on 28 different air pollutants, where the emission factors have been proposed as a function of engine and fuel type. For year 2002, the factors cover three operational modes (“at sea”, “manoeuvring” and “in port”) and thereby take into account main engine and auxiliary engine emissions. A set of “at sea “ emission factors has also been prepared from 1990 up to 2001 to allow an update of the marine emission time series.

    In order to obtain representative and up-to-date emission factors for this application, “in-house” emission data and also published literature emission factor databases have been assessed. Thus emission factors were derived from a database consisting of exhaust measurements from ca. 62 ships involving ca.180 marine engines. The emission factors have been weighted to account for the proportion of the fleet using exhaust gas cleaning measures, age factors for fuel consumption and increased use of low-sulphur fuels.

    Since the number of measurement data available for the different pollutant emission factors varies considerably, an attempt has been made to classify the factors after estimated uncertainty.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Methodology for calculating emissions from ships: 2. Emission factors for 2004 reporting2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an on-going project to improve the quality of Swedish marine emission reporting, SMED (Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, a collaboration between the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Statistics Sweden and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) has derived emission factors for ships (> 100 Gross Register Tonnage). The basis for this type of reporting is that only emissions derived from Swedish sold marine fuels are accounted for. This work presents the agglomerated emissions factors to suit available activity data (i.e. Swedish marine fuel sales) enabling total emissions for the period 1990 – 2002 to be calculated.

    When tentatively comparing the new emission totals with those reported earlier (using older emission factor data), a striking difference is that SO2 emissions have been previously underestimated (ca. 5 times too small for International sea traffic). The new HC and CO emissions are however approximately half of those calculated earlier. For NOx, the older estimates agree reasonably well with the new estimates.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Flodström, Eje
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Jernström, Mats
    Statistics Sweden.
    Emission factors, fuel consumtion and emission estimates for Sweden´s fishing fleet 1990-20042005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption for the Swedish fishing fleet 1990-2004 has been estimated using statistics from the Swedish National Board of Fisheries on installed engine power. An additional estimation method was also described. Data on installed power was available for the years 1995-2004, and estimates 1990-1994 have been calculated by extrapolation. Thermal values and emission factors are based on a study conducted by SMED on behalf of the Swedish EPA in 2004. In order to fit the national fuel sales statistics, the diesel oil consumption was adjusted according to the national allocation model for international reporting. The adjusted fuel consumption accounted for about 68 700 – 93 900 m3, corresponding to about 187 – 256 ktons CO2.